A Christmas Cookie from Santa

Discussion in 'Silver Gelatin Based Emulsion Making & Coating' started by Photo Engineer, Dec 24, 2008.

  1. Photo Engineer

    Photo Engineer Subscriber

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    I'm just about done with the start of revision 3 of the text on Emulsion Making and Coating. I have completed a draft table of contents.

    Well, just for kicks, here is the draft for you. Remember that this is a work in progress. Comments are welcome.

    PE


    Tentative Table of Contents

    Part I

    I.1 Light Sensitive materials

    I.2 Materials

    I.2.1 Silver Nitrate
    I.2.2 Halides
    I.2.3 Gelatin
    I.2.4 Dopants
    I.2.5 Doctors
    I.2.6 Dyes

    I.3 Variations to control emulsion
    I.3.1 Dilution
    I.3.2 Addenda
    I.3.3 Finishing
    I.3.4 Spectral Sensitization

    I.4 Methods

    Definitions
    Practices in pptn for the home coater
    Syringes – hand
    Syringes – machine
    Pumps – peristaltic
    Pumps – geared
    Pumps - calibration
    Flow rate vs volume
    Production precipitations
    Steps in making
    Washing
    Chemical Sensitization
    Spectral Sensitization
    Coating
    Testing


    Part II

    II.1 Lab experiments and formulas

    II.1.1 Azo types
    II.1.1.1 Grade 1
    II.1.1.2 Grade 2
    II.1.1.3 Grade 3
    II.1.1.4 Spectrally sensitized Azo type
    II.1.1.5 Warm tone Azo type
    II.1.2 Enlarging grades 1, 2
    II.1.3 ISO 40 blue and ortho
    II.1.4 Alternate formulas
    II.1.4.1 Osterman slow plate and lantern slide
    II.1.4.2 Browning Matrix Film
    II.1.5 Experimentation
    II.1.6 Pumped Making
    II.1.6.1 Single Run
    II.1.6.2 Double Run
    II.1.6.3 Triple Run
    II.1.6.4 Constant Volume
    II.1.7 Washing Methods
    II.1.7.1 Noodle
    II.1.7.2 ISO
    II.1.7.3 UF

    Part III

    III.1 Bibliography
    III.2 Appendixes
    III.2.1 Dictionary – Definitions
    III.2.2 Chemicals and Equipment for Making
    III.2.3 Emulsion Coating Equipment
    III.2.4 Pump testing
    III.2.5 Notes on Scaling
    III.2.6 Useful Molecular Weights
    III.2.7 Commonly Used Solutions
    III.2.8 Emulsion Speed Tests
    III.2.9 Emulsion Contrast Tests
    III.3 *** Cookie ****
     
  2. 2F/2F

    2F/2F Member

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    "II.1.7.1 Noodle"

    "III.3 *** Cookie ****"

    These two sections sound veeery interesting to me...
     
  3. Photo Engineer

    Photo Engineer Subscriber

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    :D

    I forgot to mention that I.4 is incomplete as noted by the lack of numbering.

    PE
     
  4. cdholden

    cdholden Member

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    PE,
    Thanks for doing what you do to allow others to do what they do.
    Happy holidays.
    Chris
     
  5. rmazzullo

    rmazzullo Member

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    PE,

    Thanks for sharing this with us...and Merry Christmas!

    Bob Mazzullo

    P.S. Is the book going to be in a format where it will lay flat when opened (i.e. spiral bound, etc)? Will you be including some type of blank lab worksheets at the rear of the book to record formulas and procedures, that can be copied? Perhaps troubleshooting charts, (or checklists) as well?

    Just a few thoughts.....
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Dec 24, 2008
  6. Photo Engineer

    Photo Engineer Subscriber

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    Here is an update to revision 3

    The book will probably be about 200 pages long with many many figures, charts, and graphs. There will be a lot of formulas as well with data along with them and suggested testing and processing.

    It is nearing completion and here is the latest working TOC. Yesterday, I had to revise this a bit and those revisions are not shown yet. I'm still working on it.

    Book Contents

    Part I

    I.1 Light Sensitive materials

    I.2 Materials

    I.2.1 Silver Nitrate
    I.2.2 Halides
    I.2.3 Gelatin
    I.2.4 Dopants
    I.2.5 Doctors and Dyes
    I.2.6 Putting it together
    I.2.7 Modern making

    I.3 Variations to control emulsion
    I.3.1 Dilution
    I.3.2 Addenda
    I.3.3 Finishing
    I.3.4 Spectral Sensitization

    I.4 Methods

    I.4.1 Definitions
    I.4.2 Practices in pptn for the home coater
    I.4.2.1 Syringes – hand
    I.4.2.2 Syringes – machine
    I.4.2.3 Pumps – peristaltic
    I.4.2.4 Pumps – geared
    I.4.2.5 Pumps - calibration
    I.4.2.6 Flow rate vs volume
    I.4.3 Production precipitations
    I.4.4 Steps in making
    I.4.5 Post Making - Washing
    I.4.6 Post Making - Chemical Sensitization
    I.4.7 Post Making - Spectral Sensitization
    I.4.8 Preparing the melt – Pre Coating
    I.4.9 Coating
    I.4.10 Testing


    Part II

    II.1 Lab experiments and formulas

    II.1.1 Azo types
    II.1.1.1 Grade 1
    II.1.1.2 Grade 2
    II.1.1.3 Grade 3
    II.1.1.4 Spectrally sensitized Azo type
    II.1.1.5 Warm tone Azo type
    II.1.2 Enlarging grades 1, 2
    II.1.3 ISO 40 blue and ortho
    II.1.4 Alternate formulas
    II.1.4.1 Osterman slow plate and lantern slide
    II.1.4.2 Browning Matrix Film
    II.1.5 Experimentation
    II.1.6 Pumped Making
    II.1.6.1 Single Run
    II.1.6.2 Double Run
    II.1.6.3 Triple Run
    II.1.6.4 Controlled Makes
    II.1.6.5 Constant Volume
    II.1.7 Washing Methods
    II.1.7.1 Noodle
    II.1.7.2 ISO
    II.1.7.3 UF

    Part III

    III.1 Bibliography
    III.1.1 Literature references
    III.1.2 Patents
    III.1.3 Private Communication
    III.2 Appendixes
    III.2.1 Dictionary – Definitions
    III.2.2 Chemicals and Equipment for Making
    III.2.3 Emulsion Coating Equipment
    III.2.4 Pump testing
    III.2.5 Notes on Scaling
    III.2.6 Useful Molecular Weights
    III.2.7 Commonly Used Solutions
    III.2.8 Emulsion Speed Tests
    III.2.9 Emulsion Contrast Tests
    III.3 *** Cookie ****


    DVD Contents

    Part I Running time ~1.5 hours

    I.1 General introduction
    I.1.1 Safety
    I.1.2 Equipment
    I.1.3 Coating methods
    II.1 Making an Azo type emulsion
    II.1 Weighing
    II.2 Preparing the kettle
    II.3 Precipitation
    III.1 Making an ISO 40 Orthochromatic emulsion
    III.1 Weighing
    III.2 Making a Silver Nitrate Ammonia complex
    III.3 Precipitation
    III.4 ISO washing
    IV.1 Testing your work

    Part II Running time ~1 hour

    II.1 Pumped making
    II.2 UF washing
     
  7. Keith Tapscott.

    Keith Tapscott. Member

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    Very interesting. When the book is available for sale, I want a signed copy.:munch:
     
  8. Kirk Keyes

    Kirk Keyes Member

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    Me too. But I also want some silver nitrate stains...
     
  9. dyetransfer

    dyetransfer Member

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    I wish I had your book when I was experimenting with the Matrix film emulsion. Esp. the chapter on how to make a matrix film! REgards - Jim
     
  10. Photo Engineer

    Photo Engineer Subscriber

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    Jim;

    You wrote the book so to speak on that chapter!

    Thanks for permission to use it!

    Ron
     
  11. Photo Engineer

    Photo Engineer Subscriber

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    One and three fourths years later (more or less), I am updating this. I have not forgotten you all.

    The book is in revision VI, with about 250 pages and 120 figures and photos. It is fully copyright, and I will be registering it with the Library of Congress soon. The cover is designed and the figures are all numbered and in order. Some don't look too good yet and will have to be redrawn. I have 2 companies locally that can duplicate the DVDs.

    I need an editor to read over and correct style in the book and I have at least 3 friends here ready and willing to read it through to check it out.

    So, I have not forgotten you all. I had to take some time due to family health issues and the fact that the book is harder than expected!

    Version V is here on the table, and version VI is on disk ready to print out. I will print several copies for the editors and go from there.

    Just to show progress.........

    Part I

    I.1 Light Sensitive materials………………………………………………………..……… 11

    I.2 Materials…………………… ……………………………………………………………….. 12

    I.2.1 Silver Nitrate…………………………………………………………………… 13
    I.2.2 Halides…………………………………………………………………………… 13
    I.2.3 Gelatin…………………………………………………………………………… 18
    I.2.4 Dopants…………………………………………………………………………. 20
    I.2.5 Doctors and Dyes……………………………………………………………. 21
    I.2.6 Putting it all together………………………………………………………. 22
    I.2.7 Modern making………………………………………………………………. 24

    I.3 Variations to control emulsion……………………………………………………… 36
    I.3.1 Dilution or thickness of emulsion layer……………………………... 36
    I.3.2 Addenda…………………………………………………………………......... 38
    I.3.3 Finishing……………………………………………………………………….. 39
    I.3.4 Spectral Sensitization……………………………………………………… 41

    I.4 Methods used in Emulsion Precipitation……………………………………….. 48

    I.4.1 Definitions of some emulsion types…………………………………… 48
    I.4.2 Practices in home precipitation………………………………………… 50
    I.4.2.1 Syringes – manual and automatic…………………………. 50
    I.4.2.2 Pumps – peristaltic and tubing…………………………….. 52
    I.4.2.3 Pumps – geared………………………………………………….. 55
    I.4.2.4 Pumps – calibration……………………………………………. 55
    I.4.2.5 Flow rate vs size of make……………………………………… 56
    I.4.2.6 Bubbles……………………………………………………………… 57
    I.4.3 Production precipitations – Scaling and Mixing…………………. 59
    I.4.4 Steps in making………………………………………………………………. 61
    I.4.5 Making- Post Making – Dopants……………………………………….. 64
    I.4.6 Post Making – Washing the Emulsion……………………………….. 66
    I.4.7 Post Making - Chemical Sensitization………………………………… 71
    I.4.8 Post Making - Spectral Sensitization…………………………………. 73
    I.4.9 Preparing the melt – Pre Coating………………………………………. 75
    I.4.9.1 Emulsion Addenda and Doctors……………………………. 76
    I.4.9.2 Surfactants…………………………………………………………. 76
    I.4.9.3 Hardeners………………………………………………………….. 77
    I.4.10 Coating…………………………………………………………………………. 78
    I.4.11 Photo System Engineering (Theory)………………………………… 87
    I.4.12 Photo Systems Engineering (Testing)………………………………. 90


    Part II

    II.1 Lab experiments and formulas…………………………………………………….. 98

    II.1.1 Laboratory Procedures – Laboratory Safety………………………. 98
    II.1.2 Laboratory Procedures – Hand Coating……………………………. 99
    II.1.2.1 The coating surface…………………………………………….. 99
    II.1.2.2 The coating equipment………………………………………. 102
    II.1.2.3 The coating medium…………………………………………… 108
    II.1.2.4 Selection of film and paper supports…………………….. 112
    II.1.2.5 Comments about lab work…………………………………… 116
    II.1.2.6 Comments about the emulsion formulas………………. 123

    II.2 Making a contact speed Azo type paper……………………………….. 125
    II.2.1 Making an Azo type emulsion ………………………………... 125
    II.2.2 Grade 2………………………………………………………………… 126
    II.2.3 Grade 3………………………………………………………………… 127
    II.2.4 Grade 4………………………………………………………………… 128
    II.2.5 Things to be aware of and troubleshooting………………. 128
    II.2.6 Exposure and Processing……………………………………….. 130
    II.2.7 Results…………………………………………………………………. 131
    II.3 Spectrally sensitized Azo type……………………………………………… 136
    II.4 Warm tone Azo type .................................................................... 137
    II.5 Interlude – Introduction to the hard stuff…………………………….. 140
    II.5.1 Making an enlarging speed emulsion……………………….. 144
    II.5.1.1 A Contrast grade 0 - 1 Enlarging paper…………. 146
    II.5.1.2 A contrast grade 1 – 2 Enlarging paper………… 147
    II.5.1.3 A washed emulsion for normal enlarging……… 151
    II.5.1.4 Chlorobromide emulsions…………………………… 158
    II.5.2 ISO 25 - 50 Camera Speed AgBrI film emulsion………… 160
    II.5.3 Making an ISO 40 - 80 Ortho film SRAD………………….. 162
    II.5.4 Alternate to ISO 40 emulsion…………………………………… 169
    II.6 Alternate formulas………………………………………………………………. 175
    II.6.1 Browning Matrix Film……………………………………………… 175
    II.6.2 Osterman slow plate and lantern slide………………………. 179
    II.7 A modern High Speed formula……………………………………………… 182
    II.8 Pumped Making………………………………………………………………….. 185
    II.8.1 Single Run……………………………………………………………… 187
    II.8.2 Double Run……………………………………………………………. 187
    II.8.3 Multiple Solution Making………………………………………… 188
    II.8.4 Controlled Makes……………………………………………………. 188
    II.8.5 Constant Volume……………………………………………………. 191
    II.9 Washing Methods…………………………………………………………………191
    II.9.1 Noodle……………………………………………………………………. 192
    II.9.2 ISO………………………………………………………………………… 192
    II.9.3 UF…………………………………………………………………………. 193
    II.10 Making a Color coating………………………………………………………. 196
    II.10.1 Dye Bleach……………………………………………………………. 196
    II.10.2 Chromogenic………………………………………………………… 198

    Part III

    III.1 Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………. 204
    III.1.1 Literature references………………………………………………………. 204
    III.1.2 Patents………………………………………………………………………….. 204
    III.1.3 Private Communication………………………………………………….. 204
    III.1.4 Additional Comments and Sources…………………………………… 205
    III.2 Appendixes
    III.2.1 Dictionary – Definitions………………………………………………….. 206
    III.2.2 Chemicals and Equipment for Making……………………………… 211
    III.2.3 Emulsion Coating Methods……………………………………………… 213
    III.2.4 Pump testing………………………………………………………………….. 215
    III.2.5 Notes on Scaling……………………………………………………………… 215
    III.2.6 Useful Molecular Weights………………………………………………… 216
    III.2.7 Commonly Used Solutions……………………………………………….. 217
    III.2.8 Emulsion Speed Tests……………………………………………………… 219
    III.2.9 Emulsion Contrast Tests………………………………………………….. 226
    III.2.10 Coating Blade Drawings………………………………………………… 226
    III.2.11 Testing vAg……………………………………………………………………. 229
    III 2.12 vAg vs Salt calculations…………………………………………………… 233
    III.3 *** Cookies ****…………………………………………………………………. 239


    The tabs line up perfectly in word. The cookies remain. :wink:

    PE
     
  12. Athiril

    Athiril Subscriber

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    So is VI the version that will be for sale, once proof-read and passed? :smile:
     
  13. Photo Engineer

    Photo Engineer Subscriber

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    Athiril;

    After my 3 or 4 editors finish, and I make corrections, it will probably be called VII. :D

    BTW, the core of the book is about 58M.

    I have it in 4 files and the total is a bit larger.

    PE
     
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  15. wildbillbugman

    wildbillbugman Member

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    Hi PE,
    I can't wait ! But I will. Will this book be available as E-Book, an old-fashioned printed book, or both?
    I don't usually value autographs. But in this case I might.
    Bill
     
  16. Jerevan

    Jerevan Subscriber

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    Thanks for your efforts! And do keep a backup (or two) just in case something happens ...
     
  17. PhotoJim

    PhotoJim Member

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    Ron gave me the honour of leafing through his manuscript last week when I visited him in Rochester, and the book looks good. Ron's making sure to give lots of information to help us find our errors in the process, because we will make errors. :smile:

    Thanks again, Ron, for taking the time to meet me - it was a pleasure. And all - if you can, go to George Eastman House in Rochester sometime, and research about it in advance because the possibilities there are amazing.
     
  18. Jeff Kubach

    Jeff Kubach Member

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    Will the book be ready for braille soon?:D

    Jeff
     
  19. Photo Engineer

    Photo Engineer Subscriber

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    Jim;

    Thanks for your kind comments. I am trying to do a good job, not a fast one.

    Bill;

    The book will probably be only in printed form similar to Bob Shanebrook's book.

    PE
     
  20. wildbillbugman

    wildbillbugman Member

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    Ron,
    Where is the chapter on "Emulsions For Vegetarians." I mean, emulsions that do not contribute to the mistreatment and slaughter of cattle and hogs?:cool:
     
  21. Photo Engineer

    Photo Engineer Subscriber

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    Bill;

    I have a few patents and RDs on that subject. We used a copolymer with sulfur and nitrogen in it for pptn and a terpolymer for coating which had a crosslinking site. For color, we used a coupler grafted onto the terpolymer.

    Unfortunately, these things are hard to get and expensive. But, I do consider this seriously. OTOH, with all of the byproducts of cattle out there, why not make sure that they are not left to go to waste, but rather are used in a good cause.

    So, there is my position on this! I'll leave veggie emulsions for you! :wink:

    PE
     
  22. Athiril

    Athiril Subscriber

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    There is a hole in the bucket Dear Eliza! :tongue:
     
  23. 2F/2F

    2F/2F Member

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    Sounds dumb, but I actually know someone who went digital solely because of the use of gelatin in analog photo products. I am of a sympathetic attitude on the over consumption and mistreatment of animals by humans, but there is truly nothing more repulsive to me than human absolutism!
     
  24. Photo Engineer

    Photo Engineer Subscriber

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    Athiril;

    My head has a hole in it. I was up until 1AM editing the book, printing and reviewing the DVDs. Maybe you can explain your last post. I'm kinda whacked this AM.

    Sorry.

    PE
     
  25. Photo Engineer

    Photo Engineer Subscriber

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    Unfortunately, I priced out having my editing copies today. In B&W only it will run about $25 each without binding and up to $100 each in color. When I have the larger run made, this same type of price differential will apply!

    So, here is a question..... How important is color to you all? Is it worth up to 4x in price no matter what the price is?

    PE
     
  26. Ray Rogers

    Ray Rogers Member

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    No. A black and white emulsion should be in B/W.
    (Even if it is color sensitive!)

    If color is critical, perhaps it could form a supplemental appendix in the DVD?