Adox MQ developer: where and when ?

Discussion in 'B&W: Film, Paper, Chemistry' started by Harold33, Sep 28, 2012.

  1. Harold33

    Harold33 Member

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    With the years, I learned to appreciate a lot this developer which I discovered in a marginal mention by Crawley quoted (with a misprint) in Anchell & Troop's Cookbook.

    However, I never saw its formula or history quoted in any printed source.
    Since Adox (C. Schleussner Fotowerke) disapeared in 1963, I suppose it was formulated before, but when ?
    Does anyone knows something about the place and date of conception and where the formula was first published ?
     
  2. jim appleyard

    jim appleyard Member

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    What is the missprint?
     
  3. ath

    ath Member

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  4. Ian Grant

    Ian Grant Subscriber

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    I don't remember a misprint, it's not in the Darkroom Cookbook.

    Adox Borax MQ is a developer we used commercially in the 1980's I used to supply it to a couple of other photographers along with replenisher. It's a slightly better developer than D76, finer grain, better sharpness and also better tonality along with no drop in box speed.

    In the past it was in the articles section here on APUG but a lot of data was lost in a forum upgrade

    Adox Borax MQ


    Metol 2g
    Sodium Sulphite (anhyd) 80g
    Hdroquinone 4g
    Borax 4g
    Potassium Bromide 0.5g
    Water to 1 litre


    Ian
     
  5. Ian Grant

    Ian Grant Subscriber

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  6. Alan Johnson

    Alan Johnson Subscriber

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    This is what Crawley said about Adox MQ Borax in BJP Dec 16 1960,the earliest reference to it I have found:
    "The concentration of sodium sulphite is 20 grammes lower than in D.76,which reduces the amount of physical development and improves sharpness.The sheen referred to earlier in D.76 appears to be caused by the nature of borax alkalinity (in a sensitive carbonate chemical developer the introduction of borax in a concentration of 0.1 grammes per litre will produce a slight sheen).The addition of potassium bromide to a borax developer will remove this sheen virtually entirely,for it appears to prevent discontinuities usually caused by borax alkalinity.The buffering of Borax with added boric acid does not seem to improve definition,although the borax sheen is reduced and sharpness improved.Adox MQ Borax has times slightly longer than D.76,contrast rising more slowly."
     
  7. ath

    ath Member

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    It's a small (analog) world, Ian...
     
  8. Harold33

    Harold33 Member

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    Anchell & Troop, Cookbook, 1998, p. 44 (quoting Crawley): "... Adox (....) formula, which is as follow: metol 1 gram (...)"

    In fact, the correct formula (you give it bellow) is metol: 2 grams.

     
  9. Ian Grant

    Ian Grant Subscriber

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    Other companies used lower Sodium Sulphite concentrations with similar increases in sharpness, Agfa 44 (Agfa Ansco/Gaf 17) is one example. Ilford ID-68 (Microphen) another both having 80g/l Sulphite Dupont used 75g/l in T ND-2 another MQ Borax fine grain developer.

    Fotokemia FR-2 is in fact Adox Borax MQ.

    Ian
     
  10. Gerald C Koch

    Gerald C Koch Member

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    The optimal concentration of sodium sulfite for halide solvency is around 70 g/l. Concentrations lower AND HIGHER than this value exhibit less solvency. So the Adox formula seems better in this respect than D-76.
     
  11. Trask

    Trask Subscriber

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    Ian, what's the replenisher formula? I'm trying to gain an understanding of how one could take any particular formula, and derive a replenisher. I believe that bromides will build in a replenished developer, so presumably one would have less of one component in the replenisher than in the straight developer.
     
  12. Ian Grant

    Ian Grant Subscriber

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    Adox Borax MQ Replenisher

    Metol 3g
    Sodium Sulphite 80g
    Hydroquinone 5g
    Borax 18g
    Water to 1 litre

    Replenish at 15-20ml per 35mm/120 film, discard any excess developer.


    Ilford chemists wrote a series of articles in the 1950's discussing formulating a PQ version of ID-11/D76 there was also a parallel artice on determining exhaustion rates and then replenishment.

    The issue with an MQ developer is Bromide build up which is a limiting factor, bromide surpresses Metol so MQ developers need to be developed on a bleed system which means discarding developer before adding replenisher, this reduces the bromide build up/

    Phenidone can tolertate much higher levels of Bromide so you can use a topping up system which is far more economic. One consequence of Ilford#s research was the release of Autophen a commercial PQ fine grain developer, the formula was published in a BJP article, it's in Jacobson, Developing as well called Axford-Kendall Fine Grain Developer with two different replenishers one for Topping up, the other for Bleed systems. Some books mistakenly claim the Autophen (PQ variant of ID-11/D76) formula is the same as Microphen, which is in fact ID-68.

    I did list these formula in an article here on APUG- The Ilford PQ variants of ID-11 (D76) That may give you some ideas of the differences in replenishers.

    Ian
     
  13. JPD

    JPD Member

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    The similar Agfa 17 is my standard developer. I use it 1+1.

    Warm Water 750 ml
    Metol 1.5 g
    Sodium Sulfite (Anhydrous) 80 g
    Hydroquinone 3 g
    Borax 3 g
    Potassium Bromide 0.5 g
    Cold Water to make 1 ltr
     
  14. Ian Grant

    Ian Grant Subscriber

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    Agfa 44

    Just to correct you this is Agfa 44 later called Orwo 44

    It's also published as Agfa Ansco /GAF 17. Agfa is a German company and when they owned Ansco the US Agfa Ansco used different numbers to Germany, they also made miscalcutions in converting Anhydrous weights to monohyrate in some fomulae.

    Ian


     
  15. Keith Tapscott.

    Keith Tapscott. Member

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    I have never understood what Crawley meant about the so called "borate sheen" or seen any scientific evidence to back it up. Borax actually releases some boric acid when gets dissolved, so how can adding boric acid help except for increasing the buffering capacity?
     
  16. JPD

    JPD Member

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    It's both raining and snowing, but I had to walk to my darkroom to check it up in the book "Agfa Rezepte" (Agfa Wolfen, 1960) i keep there. Yes, it's Agfa 44. Thanks for correcting me.

    The real Agfa 17 isn't published in this book.
     
  17. Alan Johnson

    Alan Johnson Subscriber

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    Crawley,BJP Dec 30 1960:
    "The significance of the borates is really not confined to their self-buffering action,they have in addition a restraining action on development.It is well known that borax readily forms complexes with organic substances,and it would seem likely that it does so with the developing agency,with a density depressing effect.............in an energetic carbonate developer with a fairly low concentration of developing agency to make it sensitive,a very small addition of borax-0.1 gm/litre-will give depression which could not originate from any effect on alkalinity.Sodium metaborates also show this effect but to a very much lower extent,and will not per se provoke a strong dichroic sheen.......... ."

    I think he is saying the sheen he saw is related to the complexing of borax with the developing agents.
     
  18. Gerald C Koch

    Gerald C Koch Member

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    It's long been known that borates in a hydroquinone containing developer lower the amount of developer fog. It is believed that the borate ion combines with certain oxidation products and prevents them from acting as developing agents. The effect is not seen with other developing agents such as metol.
     
  19. JPD

    JPD Member

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    If that's the case, is the Potassium bromide still needed?
     
  20. Gerald C Koch

    Gerald C Koch Member

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    Adox MQ is similar to D-76 which does not use KBr. Try mixing the Adox formula without the bromide and see if you like the results.
     
  21. Ian Grant

    Ian Grant Subscriber

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    D76 was designed to be replenished and gives it's best results when seasoned which happens when the level of Bromide in the working solution has built up. There is an ideal maximum level with MQ developers which was investigated by Axford & Kendal of Ilford as part of their research into PQ developers.

    The Bromide is there in Adox Borax MQ, Agfa 44 (Agfa Ansco/GAF 17) etc as a starter, in the same way that RA-4 colour developers use a starter which adds Bromide/Iodide etc.

    Agfa's version of D76 Agfa 19 is idenical except for the addition of 0.5-1g Potassium Bromide as a starter. Konica's version KD28 also uses 0.4g Bromide and Kodak themselves use it in one D76 variant.

    Ian