Defender/DuPont 54-D cool tone developer - correct formula?

Discussion in 'B&W: Film, Paper, Chemistry' started by pdeeh, Mar 5, 2014.

  1. pdeeh

    pdeeh Member

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    I was making up a litre of this paper developer tonight (I like the colour it produces) using the formula below, when I suddenly thought, That seems an awful lot of carbonate ... so I regoogled around and found variations.

    • Water 750ml
      Metol 2.7g
      Sodium sulfite (anhy) 40g
      Hydroquinone 10.6g
      Sodium carbonate (anhy) 75g
      KBr 0.8g
      Water to 1000ml

    The variations I found are only in the amount of Sodium carbonate. The one above is in the Darkroom Cookbook 3rd Ed. as well as elsewhere (including APUG)

    However I've also seen it given as 75g carbonate (monohydrate) and 87g carbonate (monohydrate)

    I think 75g anhydrous = 88g monohydrate and that this is why there are variations in the formulas I found (as a result of transcription errors), but I might be wildly wrong on both of course

    So, two questions:

    1 Anyone (Ian Grant?) know the "definitive" formula?

    2. What are the practical consequences of varying the level of carbonate in a developer such as this? WIll ~10g or so really make that much difference?
     
  2. Michael R 1974

    Michael R 1974 Subscriber

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    To convert from anhydrous sodium carbonate to monohydrate, multiply by ~1.17. This is based on the relative molecular weights, sodium carbonate being 106.00 and sodium carbonate monohydrate being 124.00.

    So 75g anhydrous would be ~88g monohydrate. This is only 8g/l monohydrate more than D-72.

    All other variables being equal, variations around that size relative to the total amount of carbonate would have only a very small impact on pH, but the greater quantity can mean slightly stronger buffering. It really depends on the formula.
     
  3. pdeeh

    pdeeh Member

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    Thanks Michael
     
  4. Michael R 1974

    Michael R 1974 Subscriber

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    As for the definitive formula for 54-D, Ian would be a good source.
     
  5. Ian Grant

    Ian Grant Subscriber

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    I actually have a scan of a Defender paper instruction leaflet with it somewhere :D

    Defender 54-D

    Metol 2.7g
    Sodium sulfite (anhy) 40.2 g
    Hydroquinone 10.5g
    Sodium carbonate (anhy) 75g
    KBr 0.8g
    Water to 1 litre

    You'll see minor weight differences due to rounding up/down of conversions.

    I cross checked the 3rd Edition of the Darkroom Coobook before it went to press for Steve Anchell and we found a lot of errors which were in virtually all in prior US books of formulae, almost all from errors in the Morgan & Lester Photo Lab Index,

    Ian
     
  6. pdeeh

    pdeeh Member

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    Ah excellent, thank you Ian.
     
  7. RidingWaves

    RidingWaves Member

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    (shakes fist at the Photo Lab Index)

    I very much like D-54, quite a good match IMO for Ilford's MG RC.
     
  8. pdeeh

    pdeeh Member

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    Agreed.

    Also Fotospeed VC RC. Gives an almost "toned" look in this developer.

    It'll also be interesting to try with some very old papers I've just been given (a box of Kodak Bromide grade 1 8x10, and a few sheets of Agfa Brovira 5x7)
     
  9. DREW WILEY

    DREW WILEY Member

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    I use a similar personal MQ tweak that uses a full 80g of carbonate. You need it.
     
  10. dpurdy

    dpurdy Subscriber

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    Interesting. I have used that formula for my standard formula for over 20 years. The only difference in the formula I have is that it calls for 87.g Sod Carbonate. Mine comes from Patrick Dignans Photographic 150 DIY formulas. Calls it Dupont 54D.

    Dennis
     
  11. pdeeh

    pdeeh Member

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    What makes it needed, Drew?
     
  12. Ian Grant

    Ian Grant Subscriber

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    One of the commonest faults with the Photo Lab Index and all subsequent US books is the muddling of the weights of compounds like Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Sulphite which are (were) available in more than one form. Dupont give weights for monohydrated and anhydrous Sodiunm Carbonate in their instructions,

    Defender became part of DuPont as did the coating/chemistry side of Dr C. Schleussner Fotowerke GmbH (better known as Adox) a few years later. Dupont had links with Ilford before WWII, one of Ilfords senior research chemists Renwick spent some time working in the US at Dupont (1922-25) before returning to the UK to head Ilfords research department, Later Rennwick introduced Multigrade paper but it's UK commercial production was delayed due to the outbreak of WWII and Duponts Varigam paper was commercially available first, made under license from Ilord.

    The instruction leaflet for Varigam is actually titled Dupont Defender Varigam, and in 1947 the Dupont Photo Products Department is called the "Defender" division, by 1951 the Defender name was dropped so formulae names changed.

    Ian.
     
  13. Michael R 1974

    Michael R 1974 Subscriber

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    Ian, when did the coating/chemistry operations of Adox become part of DuPont? Did that include research as well? Basically what I'm asking is, was that when the original/real "Adox" as we know it disappeared?
     
  14. Ian Grant

    Ian Grant Subscriber

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    DuPont took over Schleussner in 1962 and continued making the same products using the Adox brand name. In 1972 Dupont sold some of the German coating plant and licensed the formulae to Fotokemika who used the trade name EFKE, that's when the original Adox brand name ceased for films & papers. Film boxes carried the Made under License from DuPont.

    Ian