DIY Single Phase, 20 AMP 220 Circuit

Discussion in 'Darkroom Equipment' started by jd callow, Apr 15, 2005.

  1. jd callow

    jd callow Moderator Staff Member

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    Good Day all. As the title states I need to put in a Single Phase 220 circuit. Any tips or instructions are requested and appreciated.

    The outlet will be 25' from the box and be connected to an RA print processor.

    As an aside. I did a search and came up with a link to a forum asking the same question. The first 6 or so answers were all of the 'Why do you need it' or 'you cant do it' type. I thought OMG idiot responses are not the sole property of photo.net. The 7th or 8th answer was 'I am also in need of knowing how to do this...' The question remained unanswered.
     
  2. L Gebhardt

    L Gebhardt Subscriber

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    To the best of my knowledge all you need to do is buy a 220 breaker which will straddle both bus bars in the breaker box. This should be 1 phase 220 power. Three phase 220 is the hard one to get in a house, from my memory. But I'm not an electrician, so don't kill yourself with my advice.
     
  3. mikeb_z5

    mikeb_z5 Member

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    I agree. But don't listen to me either :smile:

    Mike
     
  4. David Brown

    David Brown Subscriber

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    I would suggest an actual electrician. However, I must admit I wired my darkroom and have done much other stuff.

    At least invest in a DIY book on basic wiring. It will have diagrams of most simple circuits and should steer you the right way.

    Be careful!

    Cheers

    David
     
  5. L Gebhardt

    L Gebhardt Subscriber

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  6. Donald Miller

    Donald Miller Member

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    As others have mentioned, you will need to buy a double pole breaker for your panel. Be sure to get the proper breaker since not all breakers will work with certain panels. Determine the amperage that you will need to supply. Some devices are identified in wattage. The formula for determining amperage is divide wattage by voltage. The result will be amperage. If you have total amperage of demand of 60 amps for instance, it would be normal procedure to install an 80 amp breaker. The reason is that you don't want the breaker nuisance tripping.

    Determine that the amperage demand of the new circuit does not exceed the amperage of the panel in which it is to be installed. The amperage design of the panel will be identified on the panel. Also determine that you are not exceeding the combined continual operating amperage of the panel into you are installing the new breaker. Providing this all is appropriate, the procedure is as follows:

    The procedure is to remove the panel cover and if necessary the sub panel cover. This will be the cover that actually covers the breakers once the main cover is removed on some panels. Locate an open space for a double pole breaker on the lug panel. The breaker is normally simply hooked under a retainer on one end and then snapped down onto the power supply lugs.

    You will need to run two power conductors of proper guage and a ground conductor. It is proper procedure to identify the power conductors in a 220/240 single phase circuit by using black wire for the power conductors and a green shielded conductor for your ground.

    The sizing for the conductors is as follows: 20 amp--12 guage, 30 amp--10 guage, 40 amp--8 guage, 60 amp---six guage, 80 amp--4 guage. The ground conductor will be 14 guage for 20 and 30 amp circuits. It would be 12 guage for 40 amp circuits and 10 guage for 60 amp circuits.

    The black conductors will be attached to each lug of your newly installed breaker and the ground conductor will be installed to the ground lug in the breaker panel.

    The ground conductor will be connected to the chassis of the device that you are wanting to power. The power conductors to the power taps of the device.

    Identify the breaker in the panel labeling location.

    This will pass code in most municipalities that operate within the NEC. I have worked with this stuff for over forty years.
     
  7. Donald Miller

    Donald Miller Member

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    There is no three phase service supplied for residential service.
     
  8. matt miller

    matt miller Subscriber

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    This is probably a stupid question, but don't you need a neutral (white) going from the device to the neutral bar on the breaker panel as well?
     
  9. Bob Carnie

    Bob Carnie Subscriber

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    Hi John
    I will let Peter Illidge my tech guy here answer this one,

    The electrical codes in US are a little different than here but I will give you the basics. For a twenty amp processor you will require # 10 BX cable( Also known as metal sheath cable.) If you have a breaker box you will require a double 20 breaker also called a two pole breaker. Make sure that it is same as the company that manufacture the box. (For stabloc use there breaker . There is no universal breaker they are all unique) The bx cable that you purchase can be 2 conductor plus ground, or three conductor which will have a red,black and white wire. For 220 single phase black and red are the hot lines white is not used.
    If you opt for the two conductor you must wrap the white wire with black tape to indicate that both conductors are hot. I beleive that this is international code. If the processor comes with a plug on the end, be sure to get the matching receptacle. otherwise you can hardwire it. The former is prefered. You can run the cable yourself through the joists and up to the breaker panel.Leave at least four extra feet of wire for inside the breaker panel. I would suggest that you get an electrician to do the hook up in the panel. Lethal current is present in the panel, Also certain states require that the wire inside the panel be routed a certain way. I hope this helps you out If you have any other questions feel free to ask. I would also recomend the electrician do the hard wiring to the processor. It can sometimes be confusing
    Peter
    Ok john , hope this helps, running into trouble for the trip to detroit, may have to make it a bit later will call on the weekend regarding the other matters we have been discussing
    Bob
     
  10. Donald Miller

    Donald Miller Member

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    No you do not...the only time that a neutral would be supplied is if you were supplying both 220/240 and 115 volt service. In that event, you would gain 115 volt by using one of the "hot legs" of the 220/240 volt service and the neutral.
     
  11. L Gebhardt

    L Gebhardt Subscriber

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    You are right for a normal house, but I have seen alot of large wood working tools that need three pase power. Some people do install them in their home shops.
     
  12. jd callow

    jd callow Moderator Staff Member

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    Peter,
    How the heck are you? I hope all is well.

    Donald, Bob, Larry, David, Mike and Matt;
    Thanks a bunch. I have a time/life wiring book and am considering having an electricion do the final hook-up. Well it is good to see after last week, I'm not on everyones ignore list and that the quality of APUG is still here in spades.

    Thank You,


    john (aka mr "I can fix Th--zzzaaaaaappp--t" callow
     
  13. noseoil

    noseoil Member

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    Install the breaker as Donald has suggested. Use #12 wire for 20 amps. It can be assorted colors, but typically a black, red, white and ground are used. The black and red are hot, white is the return and solid copper is the ground.

    When you punch out the KO in the bottom or top of the panel, you will need a romex connector or a conduit connector. No wire can pass through an opening without a protective coupling (same at the outlet box). If the panel has all holes used, rent or buy a KO tool. It is a sleeve which pulls a hardened plug into a hardened collar after drilling a pilot hole.

    Buy a couple of feet more wire than you need. Leave enough slack to move things around. If outside, use UV protected wire, but conduit is better. If inside, plain old Romex is fine. Use clamps or staples to support the run.

    P.S. Disclaimer: I'm not an electrician. I have never played one on T.V. You should have a licensed electrician do the installation and have a building permit to run the circuit or resale may become a problem at a later date.

    P.P.S. It is better to seek gorgiveness than permission.
     
  14. brimc76

    brimc76 Member

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    John, this sonds the same as installing a 220v stove or dryer outlet. The double pole breaker and the wiring should be the same but you may need to change the receptacle to fit your needs. You might find something in this site http://www.electrical-online.com/howtoarticles/HowToIntro.htm
    I had to check it recently to refresh my memory on installing 2 way switches.

    Edit - sorry I just checked this link and there is only 110V outlets mentioned
     
  15. Loose Gravel

    Loose Gravel Member

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    In my quick read, this looks like good advice all the way. The only thing I might add is that 220V services are dedicated -- one breaker, one load, one outlet. Everything sized properly all the way. If this thing is to be plugged into the service, rather than hard-wired, you need to match the plug/outlet to the load. Unlike most plugs in your house, 220V plugs come in amperages that match the load. You can't plug a 30A dryer into a 20A or 40A 220 service. This give one more layer of safety and for 220V, you need it all.
     
  16. jimgalli

    jimgalli Subscriber

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    Hey Callow, Make sure your will is up to date. All the camera goodies go to Tonopah. If you have a 220V window AC unit anywhere in the neighborhood of your processor you could purchase the correct 220V cord caps and make a dedicated cord out of a heavy #12 construction extension cord. Most house panels are loaded up pretty good. Make sure you've got some empty spaces where a 2 pole breaker can go. In USA Romex is OK as long as it's not outside of crawl spaces and wall interiors. It can't be hangin in the breeze. "Subject to physical damage". How many watts does your device need. Should say on the builders plate.
     
  17. Neal

    Neal Subscriber

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    Dear L Gebhardt,

    Sort of an FYI in case you ever need 3-phase equipment, there are products that are called Phase Converters that use either capacitors or rotating coils to convert single phase to 3 phase. As you noted, very handy for the home-shop hobbiest.

    Neal Wydra
     
  18. dr bob

    dr bob Member

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    John: please check your state regulations concerning the wire size, length of run et c. Regulations can change from state to state but all must follow Federal regs. The advice as to the type and size of breaker is correct AFAIK. The type and size of the wiring must be figured for the installation (usually). Here in Md. almost all residences are wired "split-phase" meaning that the incoming service consists of 240 volts split between the "ground". In the main distribution box, one side of the main versus "ground" is distributed on one column of breakers (120 volt each) and the other side to the opposite side. The box is designed so that a single pole breaker will give 120 volts to ground which ever side it is connected. A double pole breaker will span the two "hot" sides to produce a 240 volt connection.

    There is no reason that you cannot do this yourself with the proper precautions and reliable hardware. All breakers are not equal. Don't skimp here. Get the best available and be sure it is in code.
     
  19. jd callow

    jd callow Moderator Staff Member

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    Well, I've read up on putting in new circuits and sockets. I have bought the goods and am going to at a minimuim install and run everything to the box. At theat point I'll do a gut check and see about wiring the box.

    Wish me luck and if I never post agian -- Jim gets the lenses (He doen't have enough), Bob gets the DR equipment and the rest of you can contact my widow regarding the camera's.

    God am I a wimp.
     
  20. Bob Carnie

    Bob Carnie Subscriber

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    You know John, as Peter says a little jolt will do you, It may put a permanent curl on that beard of yours. Good luck and tell Helen to stand way back.
     
  21. brimc76

    brimc76 Member

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    John, when I'm wiring to a panel I just make sure I have a good strong flashlight shining into the panel, shut off the main breaker (the 100 or 200 Amp one at the top of the panel) and then install my breakers and wiring. This way you can see what you are doing and be comfortable knowing that there is nothing "live" around your fingers. Don't rush things and have a good look at everything when you're done - before you turn the power back on. Dr. Bob is right when he says to check with your local regulations as it will cover what you need to have for safety. They sometimes will give you pointers as well if they know your trying to DIY and do it the right way.
     
  22. jd callow

    jd callow Moderator Staff Member

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    I finished the wiring. The 110 and 220 circuits all tested well. I will plumb the film and paper processors today and see if I am in bizniz.

    Thank you to all who posted. It went exactly as described.
    I did follow state reg's, had a hand from a pro on the 110 circuit and did 220 all by myself. Helen was standing near by with a 10ft section of PVC (her idea) incase something went awry.

    Sorry jim, my will has reverted to its prior state -- the cat gets the photo equipment.