Is There A Correct Formula For Defender D55

Discussion in 'B&W: Film, Paper, Chemistry' started by dancqu, Oct 15, 2004.

  1. dancqu

    dancqu Member

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    Dupont Defender D 55 or D55 or 55D or 55 D, however you spell it
    I've seen two formulas for it. Is there A correct formula. Dan
     
  2. Jon King

    Jon King Member

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    From Photo Lab Index:


    Water, 125 F/52C 500cc
    Metol 2.5g
    Sodium Sulfite, desiccated 37.5g
    Hydroquinone 10.0g
    Sodium Carbonate, monohydrated 44.0g
    Potassium Bromide 5.0g
    Cold Water to 1.0 l

    I don't know what the two formulas are, but this one is straight from its source.


    Jon
     
  3. MikeK

    MikeK Member

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    My Souce, old text from about the late 1940's-50's is a little different:

    water 750ml
    Metol 2.5 grams
    Sodium Sulfite 37.5 grams
    Hydroquinone 10.0 grams
    Sodium Carbonate 37.5 grams
    Potassium Bromide 13.0 grams

    Me thinks I will do some more research.....But both formula should give good results

    Mike
     
  4. Tom Hoskinson

    Tom Hoskinson Member

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    The difference in Sodium Carbonate weights between the 2 recipes is 17% this is consistent with the 37.5 grams being the anhydrous form and the 44 grams being the monohydrated form of Na CO3. If so, the two recipes are functionally the same.
     
  5. Ian Grant

    Ian Grant Subscriber

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    Checking in my Focal Encyclopedia of Photography, 1958 edition, both these are probably correct:

    Metol 2.5 grams
    Sodium Sulfite (anhyd) 37.5 grams
    Hydroquinone 10.0 grams
    Sodium Carbonate (anhyd) 37.5 grams (44.0 gms is for the Monohydrate form)
    Potassium Bromide 4.8 - 12 grams
    Water to 1 litre

    The formula is actual shown in a comparison chart at about 1/3 this strenght and weights are rounded up or down slightly. But it is suggested that the Bromide is variable depending on the warmth required.
    [​IMG]
     
  6. martin@jangowski.de

    martin@jangowski.de Member

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    The main difference is the bromide quantity, and this is what makes this developer more or less warm. I tried the version with 13g bromide and found it an excellent and very warm tone developer for the Forte Polywarmtone paper.

    Martin
     
  7. dancqu

    dancqu Member

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    Apart from the bromide which can vary, 55D differs from D72
    only in it's agent and sulfite ratios to carbonate.
    For metol the ratios are 1:18 in 55D,and 1:27 in D72.
    The sulfite to carbonate ratios are in order, 15:18 and 15:27. If 55D's
    carbonate were uped to 67 grams mono it would be D72.

    You've probably guessed, I think the ratio method a good way to analyze
    a formula.

    BTW, the 'other' 55D formula was not even close. Having only metol
    it was very nearly the formula for FX-1 film developer which I've found
    makes a very nice PRINT developer. I thought I'd found a print developer
    equivalent of the film developer FX-1. Dan
     
  8. MSchuler

    MSchuler Subscriber

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    Defender D55

    I was comparing the Defender D55 recipe in the Chemistry Recipes section to the formula in the Darkroom Cookbook and noted that, most significantly, the APUG formula does not contain any hydroquinone. I would think that this omission would greatly affect the appearance of prints. Has anyone used these two formulas and can you describe how they differ in effect?

    Also, If I mix the hydroquinone-free formula, would it be a problem to add it back in afterwards? I'm thinking that this might be a good way to test the developer's effect, but am worried about problems disolving, etc. due to out-of-order mixing.

    Thanks in advance
     
  9. Bruce Osgood

    Bruce Osgood Membership Council

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    Mixing Order To make1 Liter
    Distilled Water @52-c 750 mL
    1 METOL 2.50 g
    2 SODIUM SULFITE - ANHY 37.50 g
    3 HYDROQUIONE 10.00 g
    4 SODIUM CARBONATE - ANHY(1) 37.50 g
    5 POTASSIUM BROMIDE* 13.50 g

    (1) Mono = Anhy * 1.17 (44g) g
    Cold/Cool Distilled Water: 250 mL
    Dilute 1 + 1, 2 or 3 (1+3 Recommended). *Amount Bromide can vary from 4 to 20 g: More bromide = warmer tones. To increase contrast add some(?) Sodium Hydroxide
     
  10. Tom Hoskinson

    Tom Hoskinson Member

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    There should be no problem with adding the hydroquinone later.

    However, there very likely would be a problem adding the metol later. Metol does not like to dissolve in a strong solution of sodium sulfite.

    Many formulations that contain metol advise dissolving just a "pinch" of sodium sulfite first, then dissolving the metol, followed by the other chemicals.

    By the way, I would expect the metol only version to be very slow working and "soft."