Sulfite quantum--Tmax 100 developer--single bath--metol

Discussion in 'B&W: Film, Paper, Chemistry' started by lensmagic, Feb 18, 2008.

  1. lensmagic

    lensmagic Subscriber

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    Hello, I am working to devise a film developer for use with TMax 100 (TMX) both sheet film and 120 roll film. Developer parameters:

    1. simplicity--one developing agent, metol.

    2. grain--acutance/definition trump grain size.

    3. contrast--must produce contrast sufficient to contact print on Azo Grade 2. Should have the ability to control gamma by altering the amount of metol in the formula or by changing development times or some combination of the two as determined by testing.

    4. usage--no stock solutions. The developer will be formulated at the time of use. Alkali will be kept separate until mixed as a single bath just before development begins. The developer will be used once ("one shot"), then discarded.

    5. agitation--Jobo at slowest speed. Hence edge effects are not a concern.

    6. subject matter--architectural, indoor and outdoor.

    My question at this point: how much sodium sulfite should the developer contain? The role of the sulfite will be as a preservative, not an accelerator, not a silver solvent. What is the least amount of sodium sulfite that will prevent aerial oxidation? I don't know how one would test for the presence of aerial oxidation, or how it manifests itself.

    Patrick Gainer posted a formula some time back that may be a good candidate. From that post:

    "You could make it simple by using 8 grams each of Metol, sodium sulfite and borax per liter of working solution."

    I would appreciate any suggestions. pk
     
  2. jim appleyard

    jim appleyard Member

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    You could mix D-23, 1+3 from scratch must before use. It only uses metol as the devving agent and with dilution, the sulfite should be low enough. The formula is in Anchell/Troop's "Film Developing Cookbook": 2.5g of metol, 25g of sulfite in 1 liter of H2O.

    Pretty much any dev can be used to get G2, given proper time.
     
  3. Lowell Huff

    Lowell Huff Inactive

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    If you are planning to use this developer in a processor, or not why do you want a Metol accelerator?
     
  4. Photo Engineer

    Photo Engineer Subscriber

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    Well, low agitation tends to enhance edge effects. Is that what you want?

    Also, to avoid the solvent effects of sulfite, 10g/l or less is desired.

    And, desiging a film developer that gives an image may be easy, but designing one that gives 'the' image is hard.

    PE
     
  5. lensmagic

    lensmagic Subscriber

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    As to edge effects, no, I am more concerned with consistent results than edge effects. If I wanted edge effects I would try stand development. With the Jobo, even at slow speed, agitation will be constant.
     
  6. Alan Johnson

    Alan Johnson Subscriber

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    Geoffrey Crawley studied the metol-sulfite-carbonate system in some detail, BJP Jan6 1961. I summarized some of the work in this thread:
    www.apug.org/forums/forum37/26073-interesting-aspect-acutance-developers-1.html
    I have seen mixed reports on the results of developing tabular grain films in this type of developer (FX-1 , Beutler).With TMX there is very little edge effect,quite a bit grain.
     
  7. Tom Hoskinson

    Tom Hoskinson Member

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    I've obtained good results developing Tmax-100 and Tmax-400 in Crawley's FX-2
    (mixed without
    Pinacryptol Yellow).

    Crawley's Basic FX-2 Formula from PAGE 76 OF the 1965 edition of the BJP ANNUAL:

    Metol 0.25 grams/liter
    Sodium Sulfite 3.5 grams/liter
    Glycin 0.75 grams/liter
    Potassium Carbonate (crystal) 7.5 grams/liter

    Pinacryptol Yellow 3.5ml 1:2000 solution/liter
     
  8. Anscojohn

    Anscojohn Subscriber

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    Google Paul Bishop, Portraits from the Kitchen. He used a quick mix of acetone, sodium sulfite, and metol which should do it for you.

    Ansco John, Mount Vernon, Virginia USA
     
  9. lensmagic

    lensmagic Subscriber

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    Here G. Paul Bishop discusses his developer formula. I wonder where he came up with this! Weston? pk

    I start out with 28 ounces of water at 68ºF. Add one ounce of acetone at room temperature. It raises the water temperature to 70ºF. Do not use paint thinner; it must be a fine-grade acetone. I use U.S.P. (Pharmaceutical grade), but it doesn't have to be that good. Then I add sodium sulfite---you have to be careful, that's F-I-T-E --- there's a sulfate and a sulfide. I use 30 grains of sodium sulfite. For those who don't want to bother with scales, that's a good rounded quarter-teaspoon --- I still weigh mine out. Add 20 grains of Elon or Metol --- they are both the same thing. I stir well and that's all. The important thing here to remember is agitation. During the first 30 seconds, agitation is continuous. Not a rapid shaking, but about two inversions every 5 seconds. Then it becomes critical to leave the tank alone, let it sit for 1 minute. Then give it 5 more seconds --- about two or three inversions --- each minute thereafter. I haven't put any alkali in this developer, so you don't need an acid shortstop. I use a plain water shortstop at 70ºF. Then fix.
     
  10. dancqu

    dancqu Member

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    The solution will yellow. I've pushed it to black with
    a print developer. Couldn't even see the paper but
    the print turned out OK. No sulfite.

    The least chemistry I've used is .3, .9, .9 grams of
    metol, sulfite, and carbonate in 500ml of solution. One
    roll of 120, solution came out light yellow. Tank and
    intermittent; maybe 16 minutes. The formula,
    Ansco 120 or Beer's 1, both print developers.
    Beutler and FX-1 similar. Dan
     
  11. lensmagic

    lensmagic Subscriber

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    Another sodium sulfite question

    Should the amount of developing agent and the amount of sodium sulfite be proportionate? That is, if you increase the amount of developing agent in the developer solution, should the amount of sodium sulfite be increased accordingly??
     
  12. gainer

    gainer Subscriber

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    The acetone plus the sulfite create a high pH. This efect is used in lithographic developers. There's more to it than the high pH in lithography of course.
    You can find my article at www.unblinkingeye.com on some simple developers containing no sulfite that can be mixed from the solids in a matter of minutes and that I have found to be quite good. Look for "Non-Chromogenic Antiscorbutic Developers for Black & White Film."
     
  13. lensmagic

    lensmagic Subscriber

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    acetone--it's not just for breakfast anymore

    I read on another website of a film developer using Dektol diluted 1:7 or 1:8 to which an ounce of actione was added. The writer stated: "the acetone dissociated the sodium ions from their usual companions and produced a concentration of sodium hydroxide." That would give a pH of about 12. Would the acetone serve to isolate the developer products?
     
  14. dancqu

    dancqu Member

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    Contrary to the usual notion that a high ph is needed for a
    lith developer I have produced prints using a 50-50 blend of
    bicarbonate and carbonate. Hydroquinone's first oxidation by
    product upon the reduction of a silver salt is a Very strong
    reducing agent. That by product is responsible for the
    rapid infectious lith development we see take place
    after a print has been in the developer
    for a few minutes.

    I made a few tests at lower than a carbonate's ph. A more
    lengthy initial phase followed by a not so rapid approach to
    the snatch point were the results. Not surprising. Metaborate
    should do. Carbonate is the most logical choice. Likely all
    would agree that lith prints take enough time whatever
    the activator. Dan
     
  15. gainer

    gainer Subscriber

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    When I said lithography, I meant pure black and pure white as in making half-tone screens, line drawings, etc. Most of the lith art prints I have seen have come from more or less normal negatives through high contrast paper and developers. Certainly carbonate or metaborate can produce high contrast. The acetone IIRC depends on the reduction product for a sort of catalytic effect that accelerates developing. I might be mistaken. There is a first time for everything.
     
  16. dancqu

    dancqu Member

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    Acetone is a substitute for formaldehyde. Perhaps not much
    used as a component in lith developers because of it's being
    flammable. Also the amount needed is much more.

    There are quite a few lith formulas which do not use
    formaldehyde or any substitute. Dan
     
  17. David A. Goldfarb

    David A. Goldfarb Moderator Staff Member

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    In general, I would say a metol-only developer is going to be too soft, if you want negs that will print well from normal lighting conditions on Azo grade 2. If the acetone formula increases the contrast, though, then it's a possibility.
     
  18. Photo Engineer

    Photo Engineer Subscriber

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    One of the potential side effects of acetone is the fact that it can react gradually with metol consuming both in a condensation reaction. I'll have to look that one up, but I seem to remember it as being possible.

    PE
     
  19. Alan Johnson

    Alan Johnson Subscriber

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    In metric units by my calculation the Paul Bishop formula is:
    Water....................965.5 ml
    Acetone...................34.5 ml
    Sodium sulfite...........2.24gm
    Metol......................1.5 gm
    Apart from the acetone this is similar to the Kodak high definition developer:
    www.apug.org/forums/forum233/33867-kodak-high-definition-developer.html
    The oxidation product of metol is not a developer (Mees&James 3rd Ed p367) so there will be no infectious development.Assuming the acetone complexes the sulfite, its not known what is the free sulfite concentration in the solution.Presumeably it must be enough to remove the metol oxidation product or the developer would not work.Also it may be the acetone produces an amount of sodium hydroxide, I could find no data on this either.
     
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