Titanium dioxide againts Silver for in production of film emulsions

Discussion in 'Silver Gelatin Based Emulsion Making & Coating' started by Mustafa Umut Sarac, Jan 30, 2011.

  1. Mustafa Umut Sarac

    Mustafa Umut Sarac Subscriber

    Oct 29, 2006
    35mm RF
    I had been asked that is there a alternative to silver at emulsion making and is there a research continiue or discarded at Kodak. Answer came from Photo Engineer and he indicates copper but details lost.

    I am finding great oppurtinities at widely manufactured metal powders. First is titanium dioxide , it is used at sunscreens , solar cells , paintings , food industry.

    I suspect , there might be use in emulsion making also. Its cheaper than steel 3 times and 25 kilograms comes for 30 dollars or less. There is a great use at visible , uv light technology.

    If there is a idea sparks in your minds or if you know a technology new , please share and lets open a way rescue from spending thousand dollar to kilograms of silver.

    Thank you ,

    Mustafa Umut Sarac

  2. Mustafa Umut Sarac

    Mustafa Umut Sarac Subscriber

    Oct 29, 2006
    35mm RF

    First non-metal doped TiO2 was described in 1986 by
    Sato, et al. [37]. They obtained N-TiO2 powders from a
    commercial titanium hydroxide by calcination. The powders
    showed higher photocatalytic activity for oxidation of carbon
    monoxide and ethane than standard TiO2 in the visible region
    (434 nm). But at that time, this result did not attract
    attention. Only in 2001, Asashi, et al. reported the band-gap
    narrowing of titanium dioxide by nitrogen doping [18]. They
    prepared TiO2-xNx films by sputtering the TiO2 target in a
    N2(40%)/Ar gas mixture and by treating anatase powder
    (ST01, Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha, Japan) in the NH3(67%)/Ar
    atmosphere at 600°C for 3 h.
    Soon after, successfully prepared and exhibiting higher
    photoactivity under visible light - N-doped TiO2 was
    followed by other nonmetal doped titania photocatalysts such
    as carbon [38] sulfur [39,40], boron [32, 41], phosphorus
    [33, 42], flour [43] and iodine [44]. Titanium dioxide
    modified with non-metal atoms was prepared by hydrolysis
    of titanium precursors in the presence of dopant, followed by
    calcination [29-30, 45], gas-phase thin film deposition
    method [46], oxidative annealing of TiN, TiS2 or TiC powders
    [27, 28, 47] and atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced
    nanoparticles synthesis

    [43] Yu JC, Yu J, Ho W, Jiang Z, Zhang L. Effects of F- doping on the
    photocatalytic activity and microstructures of nanocrystalline TiO2
    powders. Chem Mater 2002; 14: 3808-3816.


    Silver nitrate was mixed with reduction agent (sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate) and the
    reaction temperature was raised to 80°C with continuous stirring. Then TIP and HNO3
    were added and the reaction was maintained at 50°C for 24 h. The prepared sol was
    dried at 105°C for 24 h and calcined at 300°C.
    Degradation of
    nitrophenol in aqueous


    The reactive magnetron sputtering method: 99.99% titanium target and 99.9% iron
    pieces were placed in the reaction chamber and mixture of argon and oxygen was
    introduced into the chamber during discharging.
    Wastewater decoloring [23]


    Sol-gel method: Solution 1 (vanadyl acetylacetonate dissolved in n-butanol) was mixed
    with solution 2 (acetic acid in titanium butoxide) and hydrolyzed (24 h) by the water
    generated via the estrification of acetic and butanol. The suspension as dried at 150°C,
    pulverized and calcined at 400°C for 0, 5 h.
    Wastewater decoloring [24]
    AuTitanium (IV) butoxide dissolved in absolute ethanol was added to solution containing
    tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4·4H2O), acetic acid and ethanol. The resulting suspension
    was aged (2 days), dried under vacuum, grinding and calcinated at 650°C.
    Wastewater decoloring [25]
    Metal dopants


    Photoreduction process: TiO2 was suspended in a mixture of hexachloroplatinic acid in
    methanol. The suspension was irradiated with a 125 W mercury lamp (60 min.). Pt-TiO2
    was separated by filtration, washed with distilled water and dried at 100°C for 24 h.
    Wastewater decoloring [26]
    Titanium nitride (TiN) oxidation : Heating of TiN at 450-550°C for 2h in air (heating
    and cooling temperature rate: 2°C/min).
    Photooxidation of
    aromatic compounds
    (e.g. toluene)


    Treating anatase TiO2 powder ST01 in the NH3 (67%)/Ar atmosphere at 600°C for 3 h.
    Photooxidation of
    acetaldehyde in gas


    Oxidation annealing of titanium disulfide (TiS2) at 300-600°C. Wastewater decoloring [28]
    N, SHydrolysis of Ti(SO4)2 in NH3 aqueous solution. Precipitate was centrifuged, washed
    with distilled water and alcohol. Obtained gels were dried under vacuum at 80 for 10 h
    and were ground to obtain xerogel. The xerogel was calcinated at 400-800°C in air for
    3 h
    Photooxidation of
    volatile compounds in
    gas phase (e.g. acetone
    and formaldehyde
    Sol-gel method: TBOT was hydrolyzed in the presence of ethanol, water and nitric acid;
    precipitated titanium hydroxide was dried at 110°C and calcinated in air at 150-200°C.
    Degradation of NOx;
    Wastewater decoloring


    Acid-catalyzed sol-gel process. Alkoxidide precursor was dissolved in corresponding
    alcohol, mixed with hydrochloric acid aqueous solution. Obtained gel was aged for
    several days and calcinated in air (3 h at 65°C and 3 h at 250°C) and grounded.
    Photooxidation of
    phenol compounds in
    aqueous phase


    ]Anatase TiO2 powder (ST01) was grinding with boric acid triethyl ester and calcinated
    in air at 450°C.
    Photooxidation of
    phenol compounds in
    aqueous phase
    Nonmetal dopants
    PSol-gel method: TIP was hydrolyzed in the presence of isopropanol and water, After
    hydrolysis phosphoric acid was added. Dispersion was stirred for 2h, centrifuged at
    3500 rpm and dried at 100°C. Obtained powder was calcinated at 300°C.
    Photooxidation of
    phenol compounds in
    aqueous phase
  3. totalamateur

    totalamateur Member

    Oct 17, 2008
    Medium Format
    There are several compounds which are sensitive to light that do not contain silver; the Cyanotype rocess comes to mind. These have not been used I think mostly because they are relatievly insensitive (relative to AgX) and are normally only sensitive to the UV spectrum. The article you post notes that TiO2 is higly reactive under light- So the TiO2 appear to be a redox catalyst under certainlighting conditions, the article states that the compound could also be doped, dyed, or otherwise to also be reactive under the visible spectrum.

    I've heard of no TiO2 photographic processes, but if Titanium is such a strong catalyst when exposed to light, perhaps the trick is to use it as a catalyst to oxidise some other compound intermingled in whatever coating we're using as the "film". In otherwords, when the light comes through the lens and hits the coating, it activates the TiO2 catalyst which reduces or oxidies whatever nearby compound which would actaully form the image.

    In any case, I think the cost of developing this solution as an alternative to a silver based emulsion would probably be the equivalent of many, many kilograms of AgNo3. Also, i'm guessing that it still would not equal the speed or spectrral sensitivity of AgX, but then again - I'm not a chemist, nor even a very good photographer.
  4. Mustafa Umut Sarac

    Mustafa Umut Sarac Subscriber

    Oct 29, 2006
    35mm RF
    Below invention relates to new disk which capable to record 25 terabytes and 200 times cheaper , made with titanium pentoxide nano powder and its sensivity to laser light and its working mechanism is creating non electric conducting zones with laser.

    I dont know is it possible to make a continious degrade with it , and it can be used to read magnetic or electric field scanner.

    It is also possible to inkjet your 01 ccd with this technology.

    Here is a bad article about this technology .

    Coupled with the spread of high-definition TV, DVD (1 layer per capacity 4.7GB) from Blu-ray (one space per layer 25GB) but today is expanding steadily and move to how the Blu-ray 200 optical materials have been found to achieve the capacity of the new times.

    Despite the ridiculous high capacity, cost of materials such as DVD and Blu-ray was far lower compared with what has become very promising.

    Mainichi reported that not only illuminate, and metal oxide can be switched through a difficult and vulnerable state through electricity, University of Tokyo professor Ookoshi Shiniti seem to have found their team.

    This is Prof. Okoshi, catalytic materials by irradiation of raw materials and powder “photocatalyst“is widely used as a” kind of titanium oxide, “paying attention to five titanium atom and three oxygen atoms The combined “three titanium pentoxide,” we examined the nature of nanocrystals made of ultraviolet ray crystal structure changes and shed light wavelength corresponding to near-infrared laser, the semiconductor nature of electricity through the difficult it became clear that things change.

    She also confirmed the change in the opposite may occur, the most common “titanium dioxide” nano-particles, by heating in a furnace with hydrogen injection, “the three titanium pentoxide” easy nanocrystals that was developed to make.

    However, DVD and Blu-ray disc that is used for rare metals such as germanium and, newly discovered “three titanium pentoxide” nanocrystals is about one hundredth of the price higher safety to be used as an optical material, in light of similar intensity conventional disk and Blu-ray is about 200 times more information can be recorded on the disk.

    The future is likely that aims to collaborate with companies for the commercialization of large currently the most simple arithmetic to realize if 2TB (2000GB) model HDD 2.5 times the per piece 1 5TB (5000GB) for the birth of a disk capable of recording now, because it requires a disc several tedious “HDD done in one optical disc to back up,” I think will make it easier tasks such as .

    Incidentally, science journal articles published “Nature Chemistry” is published
  5. Mustafa Umut Sarac

    Mustafa Umut Sarac Subscriber

    Oct 29, 2006
    35mm RF
    I think a plastic film could be coated with this nanopowder and used as normal film and if my calculations is right , an 6x6 film could record 4 terabytes of information. This can be used with left handed lenses also.

    Or smaller films could be produced and used , thousands of pictures per roll.