View Full Version : Mortensen - Formaldehyde and Gelatin mix

Mustafa Umut Sarac
07-07-2013, 06:48 PM
Today , I heard about Mortensen first time. I googled him and reached some spectacular landscape and portrait prints. He noticed that he was using gelatin and 2 drops per oz formaldehyde mixture heated to 150 fahrenheit and nylon brushed on to paper and soft rolled.

What do you say about this ? Is that a emulsion ? What is the name of the process ? What steps I am missing ? I think he was adding water color also but I collected above from many pages from memory. It does require 2 hours water spray to develop also.

Can anyone write the correct whole recipe he uses for landscapes and portraits ?


Gerald C Koch
07-08-2013, 12:11 AM
Mortenson used a variety of techniques to modify prints. Abrasion of regions of the print, the use of pencils to modify the image. etc. The mixture you specify sounds like it was used to provide "tooth" to a print to allow it to take pigment or pencil easily. He often made extensive changes to a print so that the final result was more illustration than photograph. Google on "abrasion tone" a technique he developed. AFAIK he did not make his own emulsions. I have never seen any reference to doing so in his books.

07-08-2013, 03:27 AM
Umut, are you talking about William Mortensen? If so, I don't know of any landscapes of his that are of particular interest but obviously his narrative/people images are quite special.

Mustafa Umut Sarac
07-08-2013, 04:58 AM
The Mortensen Pigment Process

From Mortensen's extensive handwritten notes it is evident that he and George Dunham worked closely in the myriad experiments to develop the pigment process for which WM became famous. The following pages reveal, in Mortensen's own hand, some of the painstaking steps that were taken to find just the right set of ingredients and proportions for coating the paper. In Chapter V of Robert Balcomb's book, Me and Mortensen: Photography with the Master, Robert writes:

During the time for washing and drying the diapositive and paper negative, Mortensen did preliminary work. He attached a sheet of Strathmore watercolor paper (any good paper will do) to a wooden board with a pin in each corner. He then painted on a mixture of gelatin and Vano starch so that no moisture would soak into the paper, similar to an artist applying gesso to a canvas. After it was dry, he coated the paper with a mixture of watercolor pigments and a sensitizer.

He took it into the darkroom to dry (this kind of sensitized emulsion becomes light sensitive when dry). He then placed the paper negative face-down on the face-up pigmented paper, sandwiched them between two sheets of heavy glass, clamped it all together with strong rubber bands, took it outside into the hot southern California mid-afternoon sun, and laid it on the ground, paper negative on top. By his experience, he guesstimated a 2-1/2-hour exposure (this emulsion is extremely slow).

Sunlight has a high degree of UV for its reaction to the sensitizer in the pigment emulsion. The sensitized pigment receives UV to the same degree as the lights and darks in the paper negative. Dark areas in the paper negative prevent the light from penetrating through to the coated pigment paper. Light areas allow the light to go through to expose the sensitized pigments.

Back in the darkroom under room light, Mortensen removed the paper negative, dampened the exposed pigment paper, turned on the hot water, and, with a fan-spray, sprayed the paper gently, back and forth. Where heat of sunlight reached the emulsion, it hardened those areas, so they did not wash off. Where no light-heat reached the emulsion, the water washed off the pigment, leaving areas of the white of the paper to the same degree of light hitting the surface. Gradations of tone are preserved. What is left is the pigment print. Traditional developing needs chemical developer—this pigment process does not: Water is the developer. Retouching is simply with charcoal pencil. The result is a beautiful print similar to a bromoil or a fine lithograph. [excerpt 2012 Amphora Editions]

In the following notes, certain letters and words appear which may not be familiar. Here is a key to identifying some of them (others are a complete mystery):

Knox = Knox Gelatin
Dist. = Distilled water
Vano = Vano starch
Wold = Wold Lamp Black
W.N. = Winsor & Newton

07-08-2013, 08:11 AM
hi umut

thanks for posting this ...
i have no idea what process it refers to
but it reads very interesting .....
its almost like a carbon print or gum-over
but .... different.

i can see why he way un-loved by the f64-crew
he made anything but a straight print.

Jim Noel
07-08-2013, 09:49 AM
He apparently was experimenting with alterations of the gum bichromate process.

Mustafa Umut Sarac
07-08-2013, 10:32 AM
Text writes about coating a paper with pigment plus sensitizer. Isnt there any gelatin in it ? What was the sensitizer ?

Thank you John and Jim.