Kalogen formula ?
I have seen references to "Kalogen" on APUG and would be interested to read a little more.
It is cited in a few threads as being posted by Gerald Koch in the "formulas" section of APUG, but whichever way I search for it in "Articles"I can't find it.
(I have found Anderson's notes at GEH website, by the way)
Can anyone point me in the right direction?
A few years ago some of the Formulae were lost in a Forum software upgrade unfortunately.
thank you Ian that probably explains it.
Rick yes that's the original I referred to. should have posted the link myself to help others
I copied this information from somewhere -- probably APUG -- back in 2005. The amounts aren't exactly as noted above, however.
"With Rodinal soon to be unavailable I thought the following formula might be of interest.
A developer called Kalogen was first marketed in 1917 by Paul L. Anderson. For years, photographers had favored a German developer called Rodinal. With the outbreak of World War I, Rodinal was no longer available. Anderson created Kalogen to remedy this situation. The formula appeared in his book
"The Technique of Pictorial Photography", J. B. Lippincott, 1939.
Distilled water (50°C) .................. 750 ml
Metol ....................................... 13.5 g
Sodium sulfite (anhy) ................... 180 g
Hydroquinone ............................. 53.0 g
Sodium hydroxide ........................ 35.0 g
Potassium bromide ....................... 5.0 g
Benzotriazole, 1% ........................ 80.0 ml
Distilled water to make ................. 1.0 l
Method of Preparation
Weight out the Metol and sulfite. Dissolve a pinch of the sulfite in the water before adding the Metol. Dissolve the other ingredients in the order given. A precipitate will form upon the addition of the hydroquinone which will dissolve upon the addition of the sodium hydroxide.
Transfer the solution to a 1 liter glass bottle, stopper and allow it to stand for 2 to 3 days. A small amount of impurities will precipitate out and the solution will become lighter in color. Filter the solution and transfer it to several small (2 to 4 ounce) glass bottles and label. When prepared correctly the solution will be a clear pinkish tan color.
When stored in nearly full and tightly capped small bottles, the stock solution will keep for months at room temperature. Should any crystals form due to storage at low temperature, they may be redissolved by warming and shaking the bottle.
The concentrate is diluted 1:30 to 1:60 for films. For 1:60 the average development time is 5 min @ 22C. Kalogen also makes an excellent paper developer when diluted 1:12 to 1:15 producing results similar to D-72. Develop 2 to 2-1/2 min @ 22C. The formula was published by Walter C Snyder, Dignan Newsletter, August 1973, pp 13-14.
Walter Snyder in the Dignan Newsletter article said that the original formula called for 9 grams of potassium bromide. He reduced the amount and added the benzotriazole. He made other changes to the original formula changing the Metol/hydroquinone ratio from 1:2 to 1:4. I have the feeling that he never adjusted the sodium hydroxide amount which may explain why there is an excess. I calculate 26 grams for 98% purity sodium hydroxide as enough to just create the phenolates."
It's interesting that it was created because Rodinal wasn't available. At that time there were alternatives to Rodinal available in the UK, Ilford had introduced their high concentrate p-Aminophenlol developer Certinal in 1907/8 and Mees and Shepperd had worked on similar developer and published their research around the same time, at Wratten & Wainwright before they joined Kodak.
It was some years before Kodak introduced their own version of Rodinal - Kodinol - and even then it wasn't made or sold in the US.
This is the original version, I've seen other similar MQ concentrated developer formulae.
Water distilled 1000.0 cc.
Claritol 26.3 grams
Sodium sulfite anhydrous 180.0 grams
Hydroquinone 52.5 grams
Potassium bromide 8.8 grams
When the above are mixed, a thick white precipitate results. Add
Sodium hydroxide 35.1 grams
When the sodium hydroxide is dissolved, a clear solution results. Bottle and allow to stand for 24 hours, then filter through paper and store in small bottles with rubber stoppers. Keeps in perfect condition for a very long time.
Dilute with water, 1:40 for tank development of plates and films, 1:10 or 1:15 for papers.
If allowed to stand in a cold pl ace there may be a precipitation of crystals. This does no her-., and crystals may be re-dissolved by warming and shaking the bottle.
Elon or metol may be used instead of Claritol, in which case only 13.15 grams should be used.
The post by Trask is my post from a few years ago. The formula was modified slightly when it appeared in the Dignan Newsletter. Kalogen was manufactured commercially during the war. With the return of Rodinal production ceased.
Thanks Trask for posting those details, and Gerald for confirmation