The procedure that I use in brush development is that I use a Hake brush. I first presoak the negative in a water bath. Then I place the negative emulsion side up in the developer tray and move the brush in much the same way that I would if I were painting the negative (lightly)... covering the negative in straight lines from one side to the other. When I am finished covering the entire sheet this way I then brush at 90 degrees to the first "pass". When finished with the 90 degree pass I then return to the pattern of the first pass.
The advantages are the most evenly developed negatives possible with the least possible damage. The disadvantages are the length of time processing one sheet at a time. However, I really think that the extra time spent in developing this way is offset by the absence of damaged negatives, the evenness of the development, and the ease of printing the properly developed negative. When I get impatient, I think that Edward Weston most often developed his negatives one at a time. There certainly is no arguing with his results. Not for me anyway.
Yes, one can brush develop by inspection. Just inspect the film to a green filtered 15 watt bulb at 75-80% of the expected development time.
Thanks, Don (I think it's Don?) So I gather it's a slow, steady brushing technique? Is overlaping of lines critical -- something to be avoided/desired? And lastly, how, given such "agitation" would times compare to a shuffle regime of 4x5, assuming the same soup?
Sorry for all these questions, but I've only read of the technique in passing once before and am intrigued. Given how long it takes me to set up any shot larger than 8x10, the time element of developing single sheets seems inconsequential.
I think Jorge wrote something in a thread about brush development a while back. Check the archives for more info.
I set the JOBO Rotation motor to "P". How do I vote for that?
To P or not to P, that is the question!?
I personally use HP Combi Tanks and have done so for 15 years. I think it is superior to trays and JOBO, (debatable issue for some). They are 4x5 tanks with daylight lids that you use similiar to roll film tanks. I find that the processing is much smoother and uniform over the sheet film then trays.
I did an experiment once, exposed 6 sheets of 4x5 on a smooth card for zone IV, V and VI and processed them in trays normally. Once dried, upon examination, the center of the film had almost 1/2 stop more density then the edges. Apparently when you push the film into the developer, you get a swirl of agitation causing uneven development.
The tanks I find facilitate different agitation times, and compensating development. My standard agitation is 10 secs/1 minute. For compensating its 15 secs/ 3 to 4 minutes.
5 seconds every 30 thirty seconds for my roll film in stainless steel tanks and continuous in the unicolor tube for my 4x5. I think I may set aside some $$$ to get some unicolor film tubes and reels, though, as I love the absolute ease with which I can develop my 4x5 at the moment.
35mm and roll film, first 30 seconds constant agitation with several sharp raps to dislodge bubbles followed by 3 inversions every 30 seconds. If I want to increase edge sharpness I start as above and then give 15 seconds agitation every 2 minutes.
4 x 5 is usually with the BTZS tubes but if I have a large number to do I develop 10 at a time in the tray using the shuffle method from bottom to top giving continuous agitation.
Stand developent starts at 5 hours.
35mm - constant for first 30 secs then ten inversions every 60secs.
Sheet 5x4 is done in homemade BTZS tubes and therefore continuous agitation.
Never tried tray development or dev by inspection.
For 35--10 EASY rotations in first minute and five easy rotations each minute thereafter.
For sheet film--continuous agitation.