me too ralph, rhode island, massachusetts, new hampshire and eastern france summer or winter ...
my slides + negatives always looked good enough for me ... and sunny 11 is my friend
From the ANSI - Exposure Guide
Attachment 44202 Attachment 44203
Attachment 44205 Attachment 44204
8.3 Equivalent Incident-Light Values. The incident-light values (Iv) listed in Tables 1 to 10 are based on daylight (sun plus sky) measurements made with the photocell perpendicular to the direction of the sun on a clear day. The effectiveness of the light in exposing film in a camera varies with the sun-subject-camera angle. The light is most effective with the sun directly behind the camera, with an angle of 0°. In this situation, the equivalent incident-light value (I'v) is the same as the incident-light value (Iv).
Exposure adjustments for the factors in the checklist will be applied by decreasing or increasing incident-light value and identifying the adjusted number as the equivalent incident-light value.
9.1 The Key f-Number Rule. According to the well-known f/16 rule, the correct exposure is produced with a shutter setting of I/ISO (ASA) film speed (ISO arithmetic film speed) at an aperture setting of f/16 on a clear day with the subject facing the sun. This rule should produce the correct exposure in all situations in which an incident-light value (Iv) of 10-2/3 appears in the latitude-month-hour tables (given in Tables 1 through 10), providing that:
(1) The sun-subject-camera angle is approximately 55° to 80°, producing an equivalent incident-light value (I) of 10, and
(2) No adjustment is required for any other exposure factors.
The f/16 rule can be modified to include other incident-light values (Iv) and compensations for any exposure factors that apply by relating key f-numbers to the equivalent incident-light values (Iv).
Key f-numbers and equivalent incident-light values appear in the first two columns of the nomograph in Figure 20.
The procedure used to find the key f-number is as follows:
(1) Find the incident-light value (Iv) for the latitude, month, and hour in the appropriate table from Tables 1 through 10; for example, 10-2/3.
(2) Total any exposure adjustments needed, from the checklist of exposure factors in Table 11; for example, +2/3 stop for lighting direction.
(3) Subtract the second number from the first when an exposure increase is required, or add the second number to the first when an exposure decrease is required; for example, 10-2/3 — 2/3 = 10. Identify this number as the equivalent incident-light value (Iv).
(4) Select the key f-number from the first column corresponding to the equivalent incident-light value (Iv) in the second column of the daylight nomograph in Figure 20; for example, f/16.
(5) Expose the film at the key f-number and a shutter setting of 1 / ISO (ASA) film speed, or any comparable combination; for example, f/16 and 1/60 second for an ISO (ASA) 64 film speed.
9.2 Exposure Nomograph. The procedure when using the exposure nomograph is as follows:
(1) Find the incident-light value (Iv) for the lati¬tude, month, and hour in the appropriate table from Tables 1 through 10; for example, 10-2/3.
(2) Total any exposure adjustments needed from the checklist of exposure factors in Table 11.
(3) Subtract the second number from the first when an exposure increase is required, or add the second number to the first when an exposure decrease is required; for example, 10-2/3 — 2/3 = 10. Identify this number as the equivalent incident-light value (I'v).
(4) Locate the equivalent incident-light value (I'v) in the second column of the daylight nomograph in Figure 20 and align a straightedge from I'v to the ISO (ASA) film speed of the film being used (S) in the sixth column. Note where the straightedge crosses the exposure value (Ev) scale in the fourth column; for example, for an I'v of 10 and an ISO (ASA) 64 film speed, Ev = 14.
(5) Rotate the straightedge about the Ev to select any combination of f-number and exposure time in the second and fourth column; for example, f/8 and 1/250 second."
I haven't used sunny 16 in years as all my cameras had built in meters. Last year I put a roll of Fuji C200 through my Zorki 4 and decided to try the sunny 16 rule. Ok I did allow Irish sunshine (rare as it is) and shot at sunny 11 at it was December. Here are two examples:
I sometimes use Johnson's Exposure Disc:
You put it into a start position then rotate it depending on time, time of year, film speed, light and scene.
To try out the method without having a disc, I have converted it to a series of adding and subtracting sequences as shown below:
Start with a number depending on ISO used:
ISO 25 +8
ISO 50 +9
ISO 100 +10
ISO 200 +11
ISO 400 +12
ISO 800 +13
ISO 1600 +14
Add a number depending on the light conditions:
Strong sun with white clouds +4
Strong Sun +3
Weak, hazy sun +2
Very dull 0
Add a number depending on the time and date:
May to August, 10 am to 3 pm +4
May to August, 8-10 am, 3-6 pm +3
May to August, 7-8 am, 6-7 pm +2
September, October, March & April, 10 am to 3 pm +3
September, October, March & April, 8-10 am, 3-6 pm +2
September, October, March & April, 7-8 am, 6-7 pm +2
November to February, 10 am to 3 pm +2
November to February, 9 to 10 am +1
And finally, subtract a number depending on the scene:
Open sea and sky and scenes from the air 0
Distant landscapes and beach and snow scenes -1
Open landscapes and scenes with light foreground -2
Groups in the open and near views of houses and trees -3
Distant buildings and wide streets -4
Scenes with heavy foreground and near landscapes -5
Close up portraits in the shade and scenes in heavy shade -6
Bright interiors -7
Dull interiors -14 (disc says rotate twice)
As a test, put in some standard sunny 16 settings:
ISO 100, start with 10
Bright sunny day, use strong sun setting adding 3 = 13
For mid day in June, add 4 = 17
For an open landscape, subtract 2 = 15
The numbers are EV or Exposure value numbers. EV 15 is 1/125 at f16 which is what sunny 16 recommends for these conditions.
I think the disc will be out by one stop at longer shutter speeds as it uses the older sequence of speeds which has six stops between 1/2 and 1/250. i.e. 1/2, 1/5, 1/10, 1/25, 1/50, 1/100, 1/250 whereas a modern sequence will have seven stops. i.e. 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250.
Or perhaps this extra stop compensates for the one stop change film manufacturers introduced, probably after the disc was made. either way, I know the disc works as I have used it instead of a light meter many times.
Also, shooting Las Vegas at night - meter is useless because of the huge contrast in the scene - I mostly want to capture the neon lights, and those hold up well in daylight, so I figure that the exposure is sunny-16, perhaps a bit more - and voila, it worked.
I've always found that in places where the sunlight doesn't seem obviously weird---oblique winter light, heavy filtering from Beijing smog, stuff like that---sunny 16 is dead on. Even at the low-temperate latitude of San Diego, I usually get sunny-11 conditions in winter. Sunny 22 is an extreme case, light-sand beach/desert conditions in full screaming sun, but I have seen it happen.
With negative film, I shoot on sunny-X principles all the time. I don't have the courage to do it with slide film for the most part.
I use sunny 16 to keep me "grounded".
I always compare my meter readings with sunny 16 - that way I'm likely to catch the sort of errors that slavish reliance on machines can lead to.