Platinum/ Palladium Ė My Printing Process
There is nothing quite like the glow of a genuine platinum print: it is simultaneously gentle and powerful, it is subtle yet rich and luxurious, and it has a physical presence like no other print medium.
Getting started with Platinum/Palladium (Pt/Pd) printing is easy Ė buy a kit, slap some chemicals on a sheet of paper, find a dense negative, apply a bit of UV, develop the print, and youíre done! But learning to consistently make top quality prints is much harder. For a start there are several different ďrecipesĒ to choose from, very little truly authoritative information published, lots pet theories, and plenty of misinformation too.
Printing with platinum is a common theme for questions on APUG, so I thought it would be a good idea to try to explain how I do it. Hopefully this article will act as a starting point for other printers to explain their processes so we can build an authoritative body of knowledge. Of course, if anyone sees mistakes in my method then Iíll happily test changes and update this article accordingly.
Finally, I have to thank Jorge Gasteazoro for all his patience, help and advice as I learned this process and Ray Bidegain for inspiring me with his beautiful prints.
My Philosophy of Printing
Iím a strong proponent of keeping things simple and learning to feel the process through your finger tips. I donít use test strips, densitometers, BTZS or other things because every time Iíve tried these Iíve ended up bogged down in technical details and creatively blocked. Instead I seek to understand whatís going on through experimentation and by studying each individual print to decide how to improve it. Iíve learned far more by studying the prints Iíve made and talking to experts than I ever did by reading books and examining step wedges.
What this means is that Iím going to try to minimise the ďtech-talkĒ in this article. Instead I'm going to assume that youíre happy to take what I say as a starting point, to do your own experiments, and to develop your own printing skills and style.
In my opinion, the most important thing to understand if you want to try Pt/Pd printing is that youíre not using factory made silver gelatine papers. You wonít get black dark tones Ė you will get variations in contrast and tone Ė you wonít get faultless coatings every time Ė you will get occasional aberrations. So donít try to compare your Pt/Pd prints with your silver ones Ė they are very different things. If you can understand this, accept it, and embrace it then youíll find yourself liberated to enjoy the wonderful world of handmade prints. But if you canít move away from the silver gelatine paradigm then youíll just get frustrated (and poorer).
A Word About Safety
Some of the chemicals Iím going to talk about are dangerous. You should always read the data sheets before buying chemicals so that youíre aware of the necessary safety precautions. If you choose not to do this, or choose not to follow the safety precautions then you may end up poisoning yourself or someone close to you. Donít say I didnít warn youÖ
The Four Fundamental Pt/Pd Methods
There are four fundamental Pt/Pd methods:
- The Bostick and Sullivan ďA+BĒ method, also covered in great detail in Dick Arentzís book Platinum and Palladium Printing. If youíve never done Pt/Pd printing before then start here. Many printers find that they never need to move to more complex processes
- The NA2 method. This is a popular variant that addresses some of the problems with the A+B method by using NA2 in the paper coating rather than Ferric Oxalate Solution B. Itís not one I use so Iím not going to cover it in this article. Hopefully someone who is an expert in it will do this at a later date
- The Dichromate method. This is the method I use. It is very flexible and very high quality, but it relies on Dichromates which are very nasty chemicals. Many people avoid it for that reason
- The ďMike WareĒ method. This is a fundamentally different process developed by Mike Ware. Again, itís not one that Iíve used so Iím not going to talk about it. If youíre interested in using it then go to Mikeís web site for more info
Youíll need dense negatives to make good Pt/Pd prints. ďHow dense?Ē is a common question. If youíre into film testing, etcetera, then buy Arentz and do all the tests. If youíre not then do what I did and take the published N+1 development times as a starting point and adjust to taste. Just for the record, I use HP5+ rated at ISO 800 and developed in Rodinal 1+22 (45cc Rodinal made up to 1000cc with distilled water) for 13 minutes in a Jobo Expert drum at about 22įC. When tray developing I go for 16 minutes.
If youíre new to Pt/Pd printing then thereís no better place to start than Arentz. Buy it, read it and learn the ďA+BĒ method.
Iím not going to explain the ďA+BĒ method in detail here because a million other people have already done that. But in summary, this method uses two solutions of Ferric Oxalate which are mixed in different proportions to achieve contrast control. It is the easiest and most well documented method out there. Itís also the worst. The classic problem with this method is that even the slightest whiff of Solution B (also called Solution #2) will cause your highlights to go blotchy. If your photos have large dark areas and few highlights then this isnít a problem. But if, like me, you have large areas of smooth high tones then youíll soon want to move on to another method.
If youíre still not sure what to do after reading the book, then find a good workshop Ė thatíll save you a great deal of time and money.
I also strongly recommend buying some really good prints to use as reference prints. I have prints from Ray Bidegain, Jorge Gasteazoro and Ken Osthimer in my collection. These will show you whatís really possible and inspire you to do better. Just make sure you buy from the best printers because thereís a lot of rubbish out there tooÖ
This method uses a Dichromate added to the developer to control contrast. Each sheet of paper is prepared in exactly the same way so you can prepare lots of paper without worrying about matching specific sheets to specific negatives. Although you have to store several different bottles of developer, once you understand how it works itís really easy, convenient and infinitely flexible. Best of all your high tones will be perfect every time! Yay - letís hear it for smooth skin tones!
I use Potassium Dichromate in a 10% stock solution Ė thatís 10g made up to 100cc with distilled water. 100cc will last a long time. Obviously if youíve got other people around then this should be kept in a locked cabinet. And while youíre dealing with the powder use a decent respirator or fume cupboard Ė according to the Silverprint data sheet 0.5g ingested is a potentially lethal doseÖ
My Grade 0 developer is simply Potassium Oxalate with no Potassium Dichromate: 200g made up to 600cc of solution. This is about a 35% solution which is approaching the maximum possible. At first sight this is a bit of a strange volume to mix, but I buy Potassium Oxalate in 100g tubs so this saves me having to work with the powder and minimises the amount that may float up into the air.
The other grades are:
- Grade 1 = 600cc of Grade 0 + 0.6cc of Potassium Dichromate
- Grade 2 = 600cc of Grade 0 + 1.2cc of Potassium Dichromate
- Grade 3 = 600cc of Grade 0 + 3cc of Potassium Dichromate
- Grade 4 = 600cc of Grade 0 + 6cc of Potassium Dichromate
- Grade 5 = 600cc of Grade 0 + 12cc of Potassium Dichromate
- Grade 6 = 600cc of Grade 0 + 25cc of Potassium Dichromate
The difference between the grades is quite subtle. I try to develop for a Grade 2 or 3 print so I keep these available all the time. I also keep Grades 5 and 6 mixed because I quite often need to use these too Ė these I always handle with gloves on because theyíre approaching the level of Potassium Dichromate which can cause problems if itís absorbed through cuts or abrasions in your skin. Of course, even with the lower grades I try to keep skin contact to a minimum and wash my hands regularlyÖ Iíve never had to mix anything higher than Grade 6 but Iíve got some older negatives which would probably need that as they were developed for silver printing.
Iím not going to talk about paper coating in depth because Iím assuming that youíve read Arentz and learned how to coat paper already. If you havenít then go back to Starting Out, and read itÖ
I use a brush to coat paper Ė normally a Richeson ďMagic BrushĒ but also I use Winsor & Newton COTMAN brushes too. A 2Ē brush is perfect for 8x10 or 11x14 prints. Some people recommend wetting the brush first with distilled water Ė I found this to be more trouble than itís worth so I start with a clean, dry brush. (As an aside I donít use a rod for coating because I enjoy the feel of brushing Ė itís more sensual - not because I think the brush is in any way better.)
Some people use an Oxalic Acid pre-treatment for their paper. Neither of the papers that I use (Arches Platine and Ruscombe Mill Buxton) require this. The effect is to slightly deepen the dark tones but I also find that it introduces all sorts of horrible problems if the paper doesnít dry in a clean environment so I canít be bothered with it. Neither do I waste time humidifying paper before coating. I store my paper in my darkroom which has a humidity of typically 37% to 47%. Higher humidity has the effect of cooling the tone which I donít want.
Rather than mix each coating individually, I mix a batch of coating at the start of the session. My standard ratio is 2 parts Ferric Oxalate Solution #1 to 1 part Potassium Chloroplatinite and 1 part Sodium Chloropalladite (all available from B&S). I use 2cc of solution for each 8x10 print plus 1cc for the brush. So if Iím coating ten sheets of paper I mix up a total of 21cc of solution. The first sheet gets 3cc (the brush will soak some up), then the others get 2cc. As an aside, I filter all the chemicals immediately before mixing in order to minimise the amount of precipitate that gets onto the print surface. Some solution will be absorbed by the filter paper but thatís a small price to play for consistently clean prints.
After coating I let each sheet of paper stand for a few minutes (covered to minimise dust problems) before I dry it with a hair dryer for 2 minutes. Now that Iíve developed an efficient workflow I can coat 10-12 sheets at a time quite quickly and easily.
Itís important to clean the brush thoroughly after use (use EDTA) because otherwise it can act as a reservoir for debris that will find its way onto future prints.
Every negative I print starts with a 3 minute exposure developed in Grade 2 developer. This gives a standardised baseline that I can use to quickly assess the print and decide the best exposure and developer grade. I usually get to a finished print within two or three tries. For difficult negatives I use Michael A Smithís ďoutflanking the printĒ approach which is pretty cool and saves a lot of guesswork Ė if you want to understand this approach then go on one of his Vision and Technique workshops (you wonít regret it).
Processing is very straightforward and can be done under low artificial light. I keep the developer in a glass jug heated to about 40įC on a little hotplate. My sequence is:
- 2 minutes in the developer with plenty of agitation Ė I donít think the timing is critical so long as the developer gets onto and into the entire paper surface (take care with rough papers)
- Wash briefly in distilled water to minimise carry over of developer into the clearing bath
- First Citric Acid clearing bath for 5 to 10 minutes Ė I use one tablespoon of Citric Acid made up to 1000cc with distilled water
- Second Citric Acid clearing bath for 5 to 10 minutes
- Third Citric Acid clearing bath for 5 to 10 minutes Ė I only do this third bath for prints Iím going to sell Ė Iím lazy sometimes and itís just not worth it for test prints
- Wash for 20 minutes or more (or a bit less for test prints)
- Hang to dry for a few hours before flattening in a press
After four prints I cycle the clearing baths as described by Arentz (which of course youíve read by now so I donít need to explain the details).
Finishing Ė Scanning, Spotting and Mounting
If Iím going to scan a print then I usually do this before spotting. But scanning can be a challengeÖ
One of the things about Pt/Pd prints that fascinates me is how the tone changes dramatically under different lighting. Under daylight the print will have a much colder tone (greys with a hint of warmth in the highlights), but under artificial light it will warm up dramatically. I have two halogen bulbs in my bathroom where I dry prints: one of them turns prints to a "tungsten warm tone" while the other turns the print almost yellow. Likewise, the light on my scanner turns the print a strong creamy yellow. The effect is most pronounced in the highlights and I suspect it's caused by the Palladium.
The upshot is that no scan can or will accurately match the tones of the print. I do most of my scanning in the evening under artificial light so I tend to colour correct to the warmer tone. Thatís why most of the scans Iíve uploaded to APUG have a warm creamy tone. I could equally well colour correct to cold tone Ė it would be just as true to the print.
Spotting is relatively straightforward. I was nervous about spotting Pt/Pd prints for a long time. But actually itís quite easy if you have a steady hand, and use a good brush, a bright light and a really good magnifier (I use an 8x folding Kaiser magnifier). Read Arentz to find out how to do it. I hate spotting dark defects (e.g. precipitate) Ė itís better to avoid these in the first place instead of trying to spot them out.
Once spotted (and having allowed the paint to dry) I crop the print. Many people leave the brush marks and similar coating artefacts on the print. Personally I donít like doing that Ė it feels like an affectation and it requires the mat to be used for cropping. If you like brush marks then keep them, but donít let the convention make you feel theyíre mandatory because theyíre not.
When the print is spotted I crop it to exactly the dimensions I want and then dry mount it onto another surface. I used to dry mount onto conservation board in the same way many silver gelatine prints are mounted. I think this looks really good with Arches Platine. More recently Iíve been printing on Buxton paper which, I think, looks better cropped and mounted onto a larger sheet of Chateau Vellum (another handmade Ruscombe Mill paper which is sadly only available by special order now).
Finally I number and sign the print: itís ready to go.
So thatís how I make my prints. I will revise this article periodically if I discover new and interesting things, but what would be really interesting would be commentary from an NA2 printer who can explain that processÖ
Last edited by Ian Leake; 01-09-2008 at 02:36 PM. Click to view previous post history.
Yes, thanks Scott. That's a good part 1 - I look forward to the next one
I have been reading your's and Scott's article about Pt/Pd printing with much interest. Thanks for writing. However, both articles raised a few simple questions that I hope you or Scott are able to answer:
- Although it's not specifically mentioned in either of these articles, since the Pt/Pd process is mostly UV sensitive, am I right that you can, and do, coat and work under normal light conditions (so not save light but a normal light bulb)?
- And how big is the risk of fogging paper, for example through an (open) window by strong (UV rich) sun light?
- What development times can be expected / are roughly necessary if I want to try developing under sunlight conditions / outside? (I realise this is very much depended on all kinds of variables, like weather, season, and position on the globe)
- Is it practical at all, to use sunlight?
- How long can all of the chemicals be kept? Considering the high price, it would be a major waist of money have to throw away Pt/Pd chemicals, because I have not used them up in time. Can they be kept for months on end in their original concentrated form? And working solutions?
- And lastly: how about dodging and burning in? Since this is a contact printing process using UV light boxes, I guesse d&b is out of the question? This also implies negatives must be more or less "perfect" in terms of contrast (so no areas requiring major work)?
- On the other hand, since it is contact printing, the printing process itself is likely much more sensitive, and will pick up both highlight and shadow detail that would be lost in silver enlarging printing? Is this right, so there is simply inherently much less need for dodging and burning?
Thanks for any info!
Last edited by Marco B; 02-02-2008 at 04:59 AM. Click to view previous post history.
Hi Marco Ė Iíve tried to answer your questions belowÖ
Yes, I have a ordinary tungsten bulb in my darkroom which is always on when Iím printing. I try to avoid direct strong artificial light and any daylight to minimise risk of fogging. A simple test to see if youíre getting fogging is to coat two sheets one in the dark and one under normal working conditions. Develop them without exposing to a UV source and see if you can tell the difference.
Originally Posted by Marco B
The simple answer is donít allow daylight into your workroom because itís hard to tell how much UV is bouncing around. Otherwise try the fogging test above.
Originally Posted by Marco B
Do you mean development time or exposure time? The former is one to two minutes depending on paper surface, absorbency, etc. The later entirely depends on your negatives and strength your of UV source. My starting time is always 3 minutes but thatís meaningless unless youíre going to use my lightbox with the same tubes.
Originally Posted by Marco B
Yes, many past photographers used sunlight. But itís a lot less predictable and Iíd recommend buying or building an artificial UV source.
Originally Posted by Marco B
Powdered chemicals last forever (or as close to forever as youíll notice); likewise Pt/Pd solutions. Ferric Oxalate in solution should comfortably last a couple of months (depending on storage conditions). I rarely have Ferric Oxalate in solution for longer than a two or three weeks so I can't say for sure when it goes off (and it's very cheap so I'd rather throw it away rather than risk using it if it's a bit old). Potassium Oxalate lasts in solution until it evaporates or is carried off by the paper into the clearing process. Typically 600cc lasts me perhaps 12 or so prints. Potassium Dichromate lasts ages (I think).
Originally Posted by Marco B
Iíve never needed to dodge or burn a print. Pt/Pd copes with highlights very, very well. That being said I work indoors under artificial light so I never have unusual lighting conditions Thereís no reason not to dodge and burn if you want to, but remember that thereís loads of UV flying around so wear serious eye protection (your retina have no pain nerves so you only find out that youíve got sunburn when they stop workingÖ). Given youíre using sheet film it makes sense to learn the zone system and develop your negatives properly rather than dodge and burn extensively.
Originally Posted by Marco B
I hope that helps you. And good luck printing.
Thanks Ian, this answers it all. And yes, I intended to write "exposure" but some weird mind twist made me end up with "development"... :o
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Your welcome Marco. Development time is an interesting question though. Many describe Pt/Pd as developing "instantly" but consensus seems to be to leave the paper in the developer for two minutes. I don't think the precise development time matters much (I haven't seen any differences in the prints anyway) - the important thing is that sufficient developer soaks into the paper to develop the coating that's down in the fibres but not so much that you carry to much developer over into the next bath (and waste it).
One more question came up after reading and pondering all info:
- How long can a coated, but non exposed & developed, paper be kept? Can one "store" coated papers for future usage? So let's say I coat 10 sheets, but only print and develop 4, can I store the other coated and sensitized sheets for any usable length of times (e.g. a few weeks?). And will this effect image quality?
I try to use all coated sheets on the day I prepare them. I have in the past used sheets that have been in a box for over a week and not noticed any problems, but I've also read things that imply it's best to use fresh paper (though I can't remember the source, what supposed to go wrong, and haven't tested this). Not a full answer, but I hope it helps a bit Marco.
Yes, that is helpful. Good to know that it is possible to store papers for at least some practical time, as it not always predictable how much time is needed to print a certain image, nor how much paper will be used, so any left over paper can than be used for a future printing session on another day.
The biggest problem with storing pre-coated papers is desiccation or drying out of the paper. If you want to store paper long-term (more than a couple days), you need to completely de-hydrate it and store it in arid conditions (ideally in an airtight container). Otherwise, the partial humidity in the paper will cause changes in the sensitivity and responsiveness of the emulsion. If you do completely desiccate a pre-coated paper and store it in an airtight container, you will need to thoroughly re-humidify before printing. Frankly, this is a pain in the butt and not easy to do properly. Best to just coat as you go.
Originally Posted by Ian Leake
I will definitely try to coat as I go, but it is good to know the possibilities, limitations and prerequisites of any new process you're learning.