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  1. #1
    Mustafa Umut Sarac's Avatar
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    Rhodopsin and Halobacteria, Complete Papers

    STEP 1

    Rhodopsin is a protein which is erasable in PVA 1 million times and it can take pictures with up to 5000 lp/mm.



    You can buy it ready or you can grow it. If you want to invest only 10 dollars , halobacterium salinarum is sold live in tubes at high school biology supplier.



    Lets start from start of the whole process to make your film.



    You bought halobacteria - or halobacterium salinarum - and you want to keep it alive and grow it in glass bottles. Below paper describes how to keep live halobacterium alive !



    You will extract rhodopsin from halobacterium, prepare film and expose and read it and delete , rewrite it later in series



    Some Effects of Light on the Viability
    of Rhodopsin-Containing Halobacteria




    THOMAS D. BROCK and SANDRA PETERSEN
    Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin, 1550 Linden Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, U.S.A.
    Abstract. Under starvation conditions, rhodopsin-containing
    halobacteria show a light-accelerated death
    under aerobic conditions. This is attributed to photooxidative
    processes. Under anaerobic conditions, halobacteria
    die rapidly in the dark, and light prevents
    death. Since it has been shown by others that lightdriven
    ATP synthesis can occur under anaerobic
    conditions, it is postulated that rhodopsin-mediated
    photophosphorylation is of survival value for this
    organism in the brines in which it lives, especially
    because the solubility of oxygen is low in highly saline
    waters and anaerobic conditions can often develop.
    Key words." Rhodopsin - Halobacterium - Starvation
    - Photooxidation - Saline environments
    Attached Files
    Last edited by Mustafa Umut Sarac; 04-20-2014 at 03:30 PM. Click to view previous post history.

  2. #2
    Mustafa Umut Sarac's Avatar
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    Biosynthesis of Rhodopsin from Halobacteria

    STEP 2

    First post was about halobacteria growing.


    This paper relates to biosynthesis of rhodopsin from halobacteria.




    Biosynthesis of the Purple Membrane of Halobacteria




    By Manfred Sumper, Heribert Reitmeier, and Dieter Oesterhelt[*j
    Dedicated to Professor Feodor Ljinen on the occasion of his 65th birthday
    Halobacteria are extremely specialized organisms. They live exclusively in saturated solutions
    of common salt. The cell membrane of these bacteria exhibit insular regions which can be
    isolated by membrane fractionation. These regions consist of a lipid matrix containing bateriorhodopsin
    molecules in a hexagonal crystalline arrangement. Bacteriorhodopsin is a deep purple
    retinal-protein complex (“purple membrane”). The purple membrane functions as a light energy
    converter. --How can such a differentiated membrane region arise? In uiuo studies on the
    biosynthesis of the purple membrane showed another cell membrane fraction, the so-called
    brown membrane, to be a biosynthetic precursor. Bacterioopsin (the retinal-free protein) is
    initially incorporated into the brown membrane and can only form the purple membrane
    by crystallization in an energy-dependent reaction after prior reaction with retinal. This reaction
    is reversible. Removal of the retinal by formation of retinal oxime causes the purple membrane
    regions to disappear. Reconstitution of the bacteriorhodopsin by addition of retinal regenerates
    the purple membrane.
    Attached Files
    Last edited by Mustafa Umut Sarac; 04-20-2014 at 03:05 PM. Click to view previous post history.

  3. #3
    Mustafa Umut Sarac's Avatar
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    Making film out of rhodopsin

    STEP 3

    You bought bacteria,grew it, synthesized it , now its time to make a film with your rhodopsin.



    Bacteriorhodopsin oriented in polyvinyl alcohol films as an erasable optical storage medium




    Zhongping Chen, Aaron Lewis, Hiroyuki Takei, and Isaiah Nebenzahl
    Films of oriented bacteriorhodopsin have been formed in polyvinyl alcohol with excellent optical quality.
    Images with high contrast have been impressed and erased on these films. Second-harmonic microscopy has
    been used to read the image on a bacteriorhodopsin-polyvinyl alcohol film without erasure. The potential of
    these films for molecular information storage and computation is discussed.
    Keywords: Erasable optical storage, bacteriorhodopsin, biomolecular electronic devices
    Attached Files

  4. #4
    Mustafa Umut Sarac's Avatar
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    Making 3D Optical Storage and knowing rewrite characteristics of RD

    STEP 4

    You completed the film and want to learn all about writing, erasing, rewriting characteristics of rhodopsin. This paper is a must and in 4 parts.

    PART 1


    AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2002-319
    Final Technical Report
    January 2003
    PROTOTYPE PROTEIN-BASED THREEDIMENSIONAL MEMORY
    Syracuse University
    Attached Files
    Last edited by Mustafa Umut Sarac; 04-20-2014 at 03:11 PM. Click to view previous post history.

  5. #5
    Mustafa Umut Sarac's Avatar
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    PART 2

    PART 2

    AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2002-319
    Final Technical Report
    January 2003
    PROTOTYPE PROTEIN-BASED THREE DIMENSIONAL MEMORY
    Syracuse University
    Attached Files
    Last edited by Mustafa Umut Sarac; 04-20-2014 at 03:06 PM. Click to view previous post history.

  6. #6
    Mustafa Umut Sarac's Avatar
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    PART 3

    PART 3
    Attached Files

  7. #7
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    PART 4

    PART 4
    Attached Files

  8. #8

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    As this is not analog, but rather biological, it should be posted on APUG's sister site, BPUG.

  9. #9
    AgX
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    I regard bio-sensors as analogue.

  10. #10

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    I think this is genius. The eye uses rhodopsin (which means purple) and a chain of chemical events excite the neurons. Here it can be made into a biofilm and potentially be used as a photographic recording system of incredible sensitivity and resolution! It most certainly falls into the so-called analogue category to me.

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