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  1. #11
    Photo Engineer's Avatar
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    To achieve archival fixing, one must test for retained Silver and retained hypo. This is done using the appropriate test solutions. Kodak has published the formulas for both and they can be purchased from suppliers such as the Photographers Formulary.

    Modern paper emulsions may contain Iodide or specific organic chemicals that are preservatives. These latter also can increase fixing times as they act much like iodide in this respect but they often contribute nothing to speed, only to keeping.

    There are 5 or more complexes that form between Silver and hypo. See Mees or Mees and James for a precise description.

    Also, due to lack of good information, some things published by Knoppow err slightly. He was working somewhat blind due to the highly proprietary nature of photographic emulsions and also he lacked the equipment needed for some of the tests.

    PE

  2. #12
    Ian Grant's Avatar
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    To achieve archival fixing you need to use a good fixing regime and the simplest and best is two bathe fixing there's plenty of threads on this forum.

    Ian

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