Defender/DuPont 54-D cool tone developer - correct formula?
I was making up a litre of this paper developer tonight (I like the colour it produces) using the formula below, when I suddenly thought, That seems an awful lot of carbonate ... so I regoogled around and found variations.
- Water 750ml
Sodium sulfite (anhy) 40g
Sodium carbonate (anhy) 75g
Water to 1000ml
The variations I found are only in the amount of Sodium carbonate. The one above is in the Darkroom Cookbook 3rd Ed. as well as elsewhere (including APUG)
However I've also seen it given as 75g carbonate (monohydrate) and 87g carbonate (monohydrate)
I think 75g anhydrous = 88g monohydrate and that this is why there are variations in the formulas I found (as a result of transcription errors), but I might be wildly wrong on both of course
So, two questions:
1 Anyone (Ian Grant?) know the "definitive" formula?
2. What are the practical consequences of varying the level of carbonate in a developer such as this? WIll ~10g or so really make that much difference?
To convert from anhydrous sodium carbonate to monohydrate, multiply by ~1.17. This is based on the relative molecular weights, sodium carbonate being 106.00 and sodium carbonate monohydrate being 124.00.
So 75g anhydrous would be ~88g monohydrate. This is only 8g/l monohydrate more than D-72.
All other variables being equal, variations around that size relative to the total amount of carbonate would have only a very small impact on pH, but the greater quantity can mean slightly stronger buffering. It really depends on the formula.
As for the definitive formula for 54-D, Ian would be a good source.
I actually have a scan of a Defender paper instruction leaflet with it somewhere
Originally Posted by Michael R 1974
Sodium sulfite (anhy) 40.2 g
Sodium carbonate (anhy) 75g
Water to 1 litre
You'll see minor weight differences due to rounding up/down of conversions.
I cross checked the 3rd Edition of the Darkroom Coobook before it went to press for Steve Anchell and we found a lot of errors which were in virtually all in prior US books of formulae, almost all from errors in the Morgan & Lester Photo Lab Index,
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Ah excellent, thank you Ian.
(shakes fist at the Photo Lab Index)
I very much like D-54, quite a good match IMO for Ilford's MG RC.
Also Fotospeed VC RC. Gives an almost "toned" look in this developer.
It'll also be interesting to try with some very old papers I've just been given (a box of Kodak Bromide grade 1 8x10, and a few sheets of Agfa Brovira 5x7)
I use a similar personal MQ tweak that uses a full 80g of carbonate. You need it.
Interesting. I have used that formula for my standard formula for over 20 years. The only difference in the formula I have is that it calls for 87.g Sod Carbonate. Mine comes from Patrick Dignans Photographic 150 DIY formulas. Calls it Dupont 54D.