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  1. #1
    Mustafa Umut Sarac's Avatar
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    Color print on steel and glass by oxidation with heat or chemistry

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    I was surfing in 470000 Russian thesis database and I found an research on laser oxidation of metals for obtaining color patterns. I returned to Google and found above stainless steel piece made by Singapore researchers with nd yag lasers. Mechanism : Heat causes an chromium oxide layer at bottom and iron oxide layer on top of the first and different heats increase the iron oxide layers and change the color.Similar mechanisms apply on glass.

    I found electricity is used to create automobile point welds and same technology could be used to create controlled heat and controlled color large pixels to form an lower resolution color print on stainless steel or glass. If I am not wrong , as we see at dish washing machines , if we ground the piece , no danger.

    Is there a simpler , chemical way ?

    Mustafa Umut Sarac
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  2. #2
    Mustafa Umut Sarac's Avatar
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    Chemical Patination of Metal and Glass

    There is an chemical answer to patinate and oxidate the metal. Which sculptors used for thousands of years. Patination recipes are sometimes dangerous and I dont know any for steel or glass. I will ps. here if I can find.

    PS: Sone say dung the answer for glass. Louis Comfort Tiffany and his men created the most beatiful color glass on earth with some say with carbonic acid patination and ammonia salts .

    A book reports Tiffany irridescent glass has been made with spraying silver or bismuth in to a fire and than from there on to molten glass. When the glass piece went to closed furnace , wait the fire turns to green and they spray tin chloride . They measure the heat with first fingers nail.

    Second irridescent formula is dropping in to molten glass copper gold alloy , gold is ruby , copper is amber.

    They call these glasses carnival glasses after 20's which Harry Northwood invented poor man's Tiffany and produced every color. I am after that recipe now.


    Tiffany example :Click image for larger version. 

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    Antique Soda Glass , Surface Soda Loss Glass Examples : Click image for larger version. 

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    PS3:Carbonic acid is the chemical compound with the formula H2CO3 .


    PS4: I read many times , Tiffany used Carbonic Acid at his glass patinations but I read silver in glass and tin chloride spray on to hot glass also.. Carbonic acid mechanism is works for antique glass , his works differantiate from the old with non cracked clean and new surfaces. He did see these examples while visit in Europe and when came back to America , he requested the same look from the Nash.

    PS5:Stainless steel is only be patinable chemically to gold and gold brown . Normal steel could be rust only.

    Umut
    Last edited by Mustafa Umut Sarac; 02-19-2014 at 07:51 PM. Click to view previous post history.
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  3. #3
    MDR
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    Beautiful both the Tiffany and the antique glass examples. Mustafa wasn't carnival glass pressed glass that was sprayed with liquid metalic salts after the glas was removed from the form? The Dictionary of Glass: Materials and Techniques von Charles Bray has a chapter about the production of iridescence in glass and that's what carnival glass is. Maybe you can get a copy of the book.

  4. #4
    Mustafa Umut Sarac's Avatar
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    Thank you for the explanation of technique of Carnival glass. Important question was glass hot when sprayed or not ? If cold , we can print color images on glass , MDR.

    Umut
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    MDR
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    The glass was hot. To quote the book: "Fuming: This is a method of exposing hot glass to fumes, usually of tin chloride or silver nitrate, to produce a thin interference layer on the glass. This results in an effect of iridescence. In the past it was common practice to place some of the metallic salt in a tin at the mouth of the furnace and to drop a hot piece of glass..into the tin to create fumes. The glass being worked on would then be held into the fumes to create the iridescence. Today's practice is to mix the metalic salts with alcohol or destilled water and put the mixture into a small hand garden spray. The mixture is then sprayed onto the hot glass in an extraction chamber until the required amount of iridescence is achieved. The hot glass is then reheated in the glory hole before being cracked off to be annealed."

  6. #6
    Mustafa Umut Sarac's Avatar
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    I read before Carnival glass invention , the iridescent glass was ultra expensive. But suprisingly they use one process step same with the Tiffany glass , the spraying of tin chloride on to hot glass. Tin chloride is cheap but I think lowering the expenses depends of no use of silver like in the glass alloy at Tiffany Glass Studios. And use of molds not hand blowing the glass at 1920s Carnival glass. Tiffany or more correctly his chemical researchers Nash - Son and Father - was famous to add lots of gold to produce the rail system red stop light. It was secret and everybody asking why they were requesting lots of money to produce red light glass. I think they were the last artisans who wants to produce the best like Faberge. Look at todays jewels , glass art , watches , cars, yachts...
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  7. #7
    MDR
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    According to the father of a friend who is a glas blower Gold is still used in the production of red glass not only by Tiffany but also most other smaller glass artists and manufacturers. He also stated that Gold has been in use for several centuries to get the red color. Glass is a beautiful material.

  8. #8
    Mustafa Umut Sarac's Avatar
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    I am talking about 130 years ago.
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  9. #9
    MDR
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    Mustafa I am talking a few hundred years more.

    "The famous Lycurgus Cup, made in the 4th Century AD., contains both gold and silver. The first written instructions for making gold ruby glass date back to 1685 when Andreas Cassius published his work, De Auro, in which he described for the first time the method of producing a red precipitate of stannic acid with gold" from RUBY GLASS STILL SHINES BRIGHTLY
    by Bob Brooke
    Last edited by MDR; 02-20-2014 at 11:08 AM. Click to view previous post history.

  10. #10
    Mustafa Umut Sarac's Avatar
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    Yes , You are right , I had been asked your question to myself when I bought Arthur Nash Notebook on Tiffany Glass Recipes. He kept formulas from even Tiffany. Tiffany did many attemps to learn the recipes but recipe book are opened to public only 10 years ago . Nobody knows how Tiffany created his glass colors and tricks, how the others recipes are older or not. And main red coloring material today is copper for red. Gold left out from the industry long time ago. Lycurgus Cup is different , it does not use gold as dye but uses gold nanoparticles as the two color for two lighting condition. Its totally different technology.
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