Autostereoscopic multidimentional processes and Lippmann's Integral Photography
The Lippmann's plates thread ( http://www.apug.org/forums/forum42/6...nn-plates.html ) got me interested in Integral Photography and autostereoscopic processes in general.
I recently came across a magnificiant example here:
The photographer used a personal process that seems connected to Lippmann's Integral photography. He told me that he can be contacted about this through e-mail.
Gary Auerbach's email : firstname.lastname@example.org
More on Integral Photography here:
Anyone else ever tried autostereoscopic processes ?
Thanks for the post about autostereoscopic multi-dimensional platinotype's using lenticular screens.
Best wishes to all at APUG. Better email is email@example.com
Pertinent Links & Resources
Overview and history: http://www.outeraspect.com/history_lenticular.php
This company can supply lenticular sheets and fly's eyes array: www.fresneltech.com
This PDF... http://fresneltech.com/pdf/FresnelLenses.pdf is a catalog. I contacted the comany a while back and they said, "#300 has been used to make 3D pictures, and the pictures were good, but somewhat coarse. You might also consider the #360. You can ask firstname.lastname@example.org for a quotation; our catalog prices are not current, I am sorry to say. Sales should also be able to supply data on the lenslets. Please be sure to request a thickness such that incoming light is focused on the plano side of the arrays." Minimum $100 order.
These would be suitable for integral photographs; I've not checked into lenticular sheets specifically.
Takanori Okoshi's "Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques" is an excellent book on the topic. Most university libraries should have a copy. Half is hardcore geometry but the other half is descriptive explanations that are suited to the lay-man.
Lippmann's Original disclosure in English: http://people.csail.mit.edu/fredo/PUBLI/Lippmann.pdf
http://www.tgeorgiev.net/Lippmann/ (more, as well as French version)
http://www.futurepicture.org/PDF/P_P...s_Method-1.pdf (English & Russian texts)
This is an abstract only: http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=16069 But an alternate method that doesn't use a screen per se, but rather thousands of tiny glass beads. This is explained briefly in Okoshi's book. It is a route to consider, but poses difficulties. However, retro-reflective beads used in road paint and street signs are theoretically capable of meeting the necessary conditions. These can be had for next to nothing from hobby suppliers on eBay and the like. Worth noting.
At some point in the 80's (IIRC) Roger de Montebello owned/operated a company in Ann Arbor, MI called MDH Products. They created "Integrams" which were non-pseudoscopic integral photographs. Very little information can be found about this; but supposedly they were quite good, perhaps the best examples. Please contact me if you have any information about this. Patent: http://www.google.com/patents?hl=en&...page&q&f=false
Lastly, I was going to post a link to the Holography Forums, which had some discussions and a few posts with examples. However, follow the link and read the bad news for yourself (site shut down due to legal troubles). http://www.holographyforum.org/
Last edited by holmburgers; 10-25-2010 at 12:15 PM. Click to view previous post history.
The holographyforum is about to be re-constructed, see: http://holography.no-ip.org/
Originally Posted by holmburgers
So I actually talked to Gary Auerbach on the phone last night and we had a nice discussion about his method for making this 3D picture, among other topics. He used a camera with a motorized front lens board that shifts from side to side during the exposure. This, coupled with a lenticular sheet that is pressed in contact with your film will result in an "encoded" image on the film. Then, once you reversal-process it or contact print it, you place an identical screen back in registration with it to "decode" it and boom you've got a 3D image.
I believe that all the examples of lenticular prints that you find from the 70's (you know, lap-dogs, bouquets of flowers; the stuff you find at antique malls) were made with this kind of camera. It gives a continuous stereoscopic image within a limited range. I have an example and it is quite good, but as you go too far to the left or right, the image kind of resets, that is, starts over and there's a weird point where this discrepancy is very distracting. I believe this is called "flipping", in the words of Takanori Okoshi. However, this is different from 'flip-animation' lenticulars, which are meant to show an animation of sorts.
Amazingly, here is the camera design that he used, a WT-102 Multi-dimensional camera. I have contacted this lonely APUG'er, hopefully he is still around...
Here is a short discussion of analog lenticular printing. In this description I described a different method that in theory should work, but now knowing about this camera.. it makes a lot more sense today.
Lionel, thanks for starting the thread; I hope there is interest from others as well!
P.S. I'm glad that the holography forum is back
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Surprisingly insightful description... amazing camera
The succesor of the holographyforum.org has it's own domain now and is accessible at http://www.holoforum.org/forum
The postings from the old forum should get available soon.
The other day I saw an Avatar pinball machine (silly, I know) that had an auto-stereoscopic backglass. It was obviously a digital print, but it had excellent resolution and I'm pretty sure that it had up/down and left/right dimensions. That means it couldn't be a simple lenticular print, and must have been something like a fly's eye array. I tried to look at the screen, but it was very fine and I couldn't see any small detail that would tell me what kind of screen it was.
But I've seen a lot of these lately, at movie theaters, in various advertising things, etc. Digital printing companies out there are doing very impressive work with auto-stereoscopic prints. Doing things digitally certainly makes it a lot easier, but it's not to say that these methods couldn't be done analog.
Still interested in this stuff, how about you Lionel?
Beaded Plate Recording of Integral Photographs
I haven't read this, but I'd like to. You can make a fly's eye array from small glass beads coated on a photo plate. I've read that the balls should have a refraction index of n=1.0*. Retroreflective glass beads, which are cheap as dirt for crafts, or slightly more expensive for street signs, road paint, have indices approaching this. Therefore, they should theoretically work.
The trick would be to coat the film/plate with these beads. I think that the authors of this paper wetted a glass plate in photo-flo and poured the beads on it. The gelatin got sticky enough to accept the beads and despite being exceptionally fragile, it should work. However, since glass plates aren't really practical these days, unless you are coating your own emulsions (lightbulb anyone!??!) it'd be nice to make it work with film.
I'm wondering if a thin solution of gelatin would be permeable enough by processing solutions to be successful. You could mix the beads and gelatin and coat the film.
Then, you'd expose the plate without a camera; each bead acting as its own lens. Not sure what kind of "focusing range" one would have, but it'd be fun to figure out.
Take this idea one step further, you could use red, green and blue colored glass beads. I don't know if they exist with the proper retroreflective properties, but such beads do exist for craft purposes. Imagine it though... you could have an integral color photograph a la screen-plate photographs. From a black and white film and no camera, you could get a 3-dimensional, color image.
*edit: Ok, thanks to my girlfriend being a student, I got the article. PM me if interested. Turns out the refractive index is 2, not 1. "The glass balls have a refractive index close to two and act as little lenslets. Their focal length is equal to their diameter and they therefore form an image on their back surface."
Last edited by holmburgers; 12-29-2010 at 12:56 PM. Click to view previous post history.
Kodak has a patent on a multilayered 3D moving lenticular system. I have seen 2 examples of it used in movie posters. One, for Jurassic Park showed a moving T-Rex that seemed to leap out at you as you walked by, and the other was for STTNG-Generations in which the Enterprise seemed to fly through a Star Trek logo as you walked by. They were made available to the movie industry but never caught on.
Kodak published their annual report one year with a 3D lenticular photo on the cover.
Kodak also made a 3D lenticular print material to make 3D prints from the Kodak Stereo Camera, but none of this ever caught on.
It was all quite good, but perhaps before its time.