Say, "Periskop" refers to two element symmetrical, "Aplanat" means without distortion, etc. Same goes for other makers such as Dallmeyer: "Rapid Landscape", "Rapid Rectilinear", "Patent Portrait" etc. We are talking about contrived names which can be registered, and "Anastigmat" is descriptive, therefore Zeiss felt the need to invent the name "Protar" which started this whole lens-naming business.
"Periskop" refers to a two-element symmetrical lens, because that is the name Steinheil used for his symmetrical two-element lens.
"Aplanat"? There's obviously someththing about "plan" or flat in there, but Aplanat is not explained by that. The a- suffix usually means "not-", so it's a "not-flat-thingy"? "Without distortion" is what Dallmeyer decided on in naming the Rapid Rectilinear as opposed to the previous Rectilinear, which was not at all rapid.
"Antiplanet" descriptive? Certainly no more than "Protar"! "Proto-" as in first, original; Prot-A(nastigmat)-R(it's German; it would be pronounced and misspelled with the R if it wasn't there).