The ideal mixer will not heat the emulsion, cause shear forces nor will it beat air into the make. It will be a perfect mixer for any and all emulsions.

One way to do this is in a totally enclosed chamber with no air gaps and into which you add your starting mix and the making ingredients. A high speed impeller or prop type mixer would virtually fill this chamber and the conditions would be met.

But wait! How do we add ingredients? The answer is to have an on-line UF unit to allow for constant volume throughout the make. However, this still limits you to a given fixed size, that of the chamber. This is usually a cylinder, with closed top and bottom and a full sized mixing impeller inside the chamber.

This does work, but is rather limited in scope.

A broader scope is allowed by taking the cylindrical side off the chamber, drilling holes in the top and bottom of the "lids" on the above, and then submerging it in the large kettle. Then you can make any size emulsion you wish.

This device is called a shrouded turbine. It sucks liquid in from the top and bottom (both kettle ingredients and newly added ingredients) and the reactor is within the top and bottom lid and just before expulsion due to the rotational force of the turbine or impeller.

Coming out the edges of the shroud (the top and bottom of the original cylinder), the reactants are spread evenly by the high mixing energy and form rising and falling walls of mixture at the edges of the kettle. Baffles break up any eddy currents and provide full mixing.

Since there are no shear forces, there is no excessive heat generated, crystals are not broken, but good mixing is achieved. This type of unit is a unique mixer, particularly adapted to emulsion making. Further refinement can adjust this device to be fully scalable and to also have constant throughput regardless of make size or input rate.

Unfortunately, I have found that emulsions designed to take advantage of this type of mixer are difficult to make with other types of mixer and are difficult to scale with other types of mixer.

So, there you have a special sort of mixer explained. Earlier, we were in the midst of a huge thunderstorm with heavy rain and hail. I deferred posting this until we had an "all clear".

PE