I use my enlarger to go directly from 35mm to about 4x5 (considering the mismatch in aspect ratios). It gives me about a 3" x 4.5" negative. I use either color or B&W. I usually start with a 35mm slide though.
OTOH, I also can go directly to a digital negative of any size, but that is a topic for the hybrid site. So, no more on that.