One and three fourths years later (more or less), I am updating this. I have not forgotten you all.

The book is in revision VI, with about 250 pages and 120 figures and photos. It is fully copyright, and I will be registering it with the Library of Congress soon. The cover is designed and the figures are all numbered and in order. Some don't look too good yet and will have to be redrawn. I have 2 companies locally that can duplicate the DVDs.

I need an editor to read over and correct style in the book and I have at least 3 friends here ready and willing to read it through to check it out.

So, I have not forgotten you all. I had to take some time due to family health issues and the fact that the book is harder than expected!

Version V is here on the table, and version VI is on disk ready to print out. I will print several copies for the editors and go from there.

Just to show progress.........

Part I

I.1 Light Sensitive materials………………………………………………………..……… 11

I.2 Materials…………………… ……………………………………………………………….. 12

I.2.1 Silver Nitrate…………………………………………………………………… 13
I.2.2 Halides…………………………………………………………………………… 13
I.2.3 Gelatin…………………………………………………………………………… 18
I.2.4 Dopants…………………………………………………………………………. 20
I.2.5 Doctors and Dyes……………………………………………………………. 21
I.2.6 Putting it all together………………………………………………………. 22
I.2.7 Modern making………………………………………………………………. 24

I.3 Variations to control emulsion……………………………………………………… 36
I.3.1 Dilution or thickness of emulsion layer……………………………... 36
I.3.2 Addenda…………………………………………………………………......... 38
I.3.3 Finishing……………………………………………………………………….. 39
I.3.4 Spectral Sensitization……………………………………………………… 41

I.4 Methods used in Emulsion Precipitation……………………………………….. 48

I.4.1 Definitions of some emulsion types…………………………………… 48
I.4.2 Practices in home precipitation………………………………………… 50
I.4.2.1 Syringes – manual and automatic…………………………. 50
I.4.2.2 Pumps – peristaltic and tubing…………………………….. 52
I.4.2.3 Pumps – geared………………………………………………….. 55
I.4.2.4 Pumps – calibration……………………………………………. 55
I.4.2.5 Flow rate vs size of make……………………………………… 56
I.4.2.6 Bubbles……………………………………………………………… 57
I.4.3 Production precipitations – Scaling and Mixing…………………. 59
I.4.4 Steps in making………………………………………………………………. 61
I.4.5 Making- Post Making – Dopants……………………………………….. 64
I.4.6 Post Making – Washing the Emulsion……………………………….. 66
I.4.7 Post Making - Chemical Sensitization………………………………… 71
I.4.8 Post Making - Spectral Sensitization…………………………………. 73
I.4.9 Preparing the melt – Pre Coating………………………………………. 75
I.4.9.1 Emulsion Addenda and Doctors……………………………. 76
I.4.9.2 Surfactants…………………………………………………………. 76
I.4.9.3 Hardeners………………………………………………………….. 77
I.4.10 Coating…………………………………………………………………………. 78
I.4.11 Photo System Engineering (Theory)………………………………… 87
I.4.12 Photo Systems Engineering (Testing)………………………………. 90


Part II

II.1 Lab experiments and formulas…………………………………………………….. 98

II.1.1 Laboratory Procedures – Laboratory Safety………………………. 98
II.1.2 Laboratory Procedures – Hand Coating……………………………. 99
II.1.2.1 The coating surface…………………………………………….. 99
II.1.2.2 The coating equipment………………………………………. 102
II.1.2.3 The coating medium…………………………………………… 108
II.1.2.4 Selection of film and paper supports…………………….. 112
II.1.2.5 Comments about lab work…………………………………… 116
II.1.2.6 Comments about the emulsion formulas………………. 123

II.2 Making a contact speed Azo type paper……………………………….. 125
II.2.1 Making an Azo type emulsion ………………………………... 125
II.2.2 Grade 2………………………………………………………………… 126
II.2.3 Grade 3………………………………………………………………… 127
II.2.4 Grade 4………………………………………………………………… 128
II.2.5 Things to be aware of and troubleshooting………………. 128
II.2.6 Exposure and Processing……………………………………….. 130
II.2.7 Results…………………………………………………………………. 131
II.3 Spectrally sensitized Azo type……………………………………………… 136
II.4 Warm tone Azo type .................................................. .................. 137
II.5 Interlude – Introduction to the hard stuff…………………………….. 140
II.5.1 Making an enlarging speed emulsion……………………….. 144
II.5.1.1 A Contrast grade 0 - 1 Enlarging paper…………. 146
II.5.1.2 A contrast grade 1 – 2 Enlarging paper………… 147
II.5.1.3 A washed emulsion for normal enlarging……… 151
II.5.1.4 Chlorobromide emulsions…………………………… 158
II.5.2 ISO 25 - 50 Camera Speed AgBrI film emulsion………… 160
II.5.3 Making an ISO 40 - 80 Ortho film SRAD………………….. 162
II.5.4 Alternate to ISO 40 emulsion…………………………………… 169
II.6 Alternate formulas………………………………………………………………. 175
II.6.1 Browning Matrix Film……………………………………………… 175
II.6.2 Osterman slow plate and lantern slide………………………. 179
II.7 A modern High Speed formula……………………………………………… 182
II.8 Pumped Making………………………………………………………………….. 185
II.8.1 Single Run……………………………………………………………… 187
II.8.2 Double Run……………………………………………………………. 187
II.8.3 Multiple Solution Making………………………………………… 188
II.8.4 Controlled Makes……………………………………………………. 188
II.8.5 Constant Volume……………………………………………………. 191
II.9 Washing Methods…………………………………………………………………191
II.9.1 Noodle……………………………………………………………………. 192
II.9.2 ISO………………………………………………………………………… 192
II.9.3 UF…………………………………………………………………………. 193
II.10 Making a Color coating………………………………………………………. 196
II.10.1 Dye Bleach……………………………………………………………. 196
II.10.2 Chromogenic………………………………………………………… 198

Part III

III.1 Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………. 204
III.1.1 Literature references………………………………………………………. 204
III.1.2 Patents………………………………………………………………………….. 204
III.1.3 Private Communication………………………………………………….. 204
III.1.4 Additional Comments and Sources…………………………………… 205
III.2 Appendixes
III.2.1 Dictionary – Definitions………………………………………………….. 206
III.2.2 Chemicals and Equipment for Making……………………………… 211
III.2.3 Emulsion Coating Methods……………………………………………… 213
III.2.4 Pump testing………………………………………………………………….. 215
III.2.5 Notes on Scaling……………………………………………………………… 215
III.2.6 Useful Molecular Weights………………………………………………… 216
III.2.7 Commonly Used Solutions……………………………………………….. 217
III.2.8 Emulsion Speed Tests……………………………………………………… 219
III.2.9 Emulsion Contrast Tests………………………………………………….. 226
III.2.10 Coating Blade Drawings………………………………………………… 226
III.2.11 Testing vAg……………………………………………………………………. 229
III 2.12 vAg vs Salt calculations…………………………………………………… 233
III.3 *** Cookies ****…………………………………………………………………. 239


The tabs line up perfectly in word. The cookies remain.

PE