If you do not have a sufficiently short lens on a view camera then you will need a huge amount of extension to get the magnification you are looking for. In any format not every lens is well corrected for macro work. With enough extension the desired magnification can be achieved but the image quailty may not be very good. In any macro situation you need to to align the film plane with the most important part of the subject to make the best use of the available depth of field. A typical 50-60mm macro lens for 35mm use will not be at its best at f/22. Some bellows usits for 35mm cameras have front standards with movements. These include the Nikon PB-4 and the Minolta Auto Bellows III. These movements can be used to fine tune depth of field. There was an interesting Spiratone bellows with interchangeable mounts which had movements.
In any situation where medium format or large format is being considered for use in preference to 35mm, you need to see whether the size of the subject on the negative/slide is larger than what you would get with 35mm. A subject which is 24X36mm in size and which is shot at 1:1 on 35mm film will give an image area of 24X36mm. If your medium format set-up gets you the same 1:1 magnification then the image area of the subject will be the same 24X36mm on film. In this example there was no benefit in using the larger format assuming that both cameras had the same film type in them. With the 6X9 format, for example, you would need 2:1 magnification to get the same subject to 48X72mm on film. How much image quality you would get because of less enlargement of the film would depend on how large you wanted to make the final print. For black & white work you have films like Imagelink HQ which can withstand great degrees of enlargement without showing grain. Color films like Ektar and Velvia 50 aren't nearly as good as Imakelink HQ when it comes to grain but are still very good. Once Kodak discontinued Kodachrome 25 it became necessary to go up in format for certain color work.
As a general proposition the smaller your subject the easier it is to handle with 35mm equipment. The 35mm equipment is more flexible and allows you to adapt many types of lenses, bellows, extension tubes etc. All of my medium format SLRs are Bronicas with electronically governed leaf shutter lenses. I could get a bellows for any of the three formats but a Mamiya 645 with a focal plane shutter would be more easily adapted for higher magnification close-up work.