Originally Posted by Cesaraugusta
Beyond focal length and the physical size of the pinhole, I can think of several more aspects that when considered in the pinhole's design will most likely increase the sharpness (reduce defraction) in the projected image.

1. The shape of the pinhole.
2. The thickness of the pinhole plate material (at the pinhole)
3. The color of the pinhole plate material (at the pinhole)

Would someone care to elaborate further?
Let me take a stab:

1) The shape of the pinhole. I suppose you could say that the amount of light diffracted is proportional to the perimeter of the pinhole. The smallest perimeter for any given area (e.g. the area of the pinhole itself) is a perfect circle. Anything else adds more 'edge' around which more light can be diffracted. Which results in reducing sharpness. How'd I do?

2) Thickness of the plate material. Let's see. Hmmm.... Imagine light coming into the pinhole at any angle from the axis. Some of that light will "touch" the front edge of the pinhole. Resulting in some diffraction. Some of the light will then "touch" the rear edge of the pinhole. More diffraction. Any thickness greater than zero effectively results in "two" pinholes: one at the front surface of the plate and one at the rear surface. Effectively doubling the diffraction causing edge. Also a thicker plate effectively reduces the pinhole aperture for any light not coming straight from the front.

To remedy this, once you've drilled your pinhole, take a counter sinking drill bit and create a conical shaped hole over your pinhole. If you get it just right, it will result in a near knife edge perimeter for your pinhole. It might make it a bit delicate but no more so than a glass lens.

3) Colour. Not a clue.