Yes, ISO paper range is the relative of Gamma - How fast to I go from white to black is what ISO Range tells you - ie the slope of the HD curve for the paper.

A thin negative (from underdevelopment) has a low slope, (because of lack of action time or lack of agitaion or excessive dilution or low temperature) The developer did not to convert (reduce) enough halogenated silver chloride/bromide/iodide to elemental silver, and the un- reduced halogantaed silver complexes were dissolved away in the fixing stage. So with low silver denisty, it has lower opacity i.e not a high enough range of densities. So the negatives gamma is low. It needs a higher than 'normal' gamma from the paper to yield a print with a hope at a convincing range of tones from white to black.

The converse, with excess development action, builds too high a slope, in the negative, so the paper needs to have a lower slope to allow a range of tones from white to black to be rendered in the print.

In the interst of brevity I am going to leave out under and over exposure effects, other than to say unless overexposure is extreme, it can usually yield a printable, but overall dense negative, and plausible looking print. The highlights in the print will end up compresed due to the negatives' densest parts of the image riding high on the curve where it begins to loose slope, but the developer action will still yield s good slope for the darker tones.

If you are still curious, and not hung up on densitometry, David Vestal's 70's book 'The Craft of Photography' contains good examples of varying exposure and development and the effect on the final print. I more or less began a good part of what I started to teach myself about photography from what I learned in that book.

It is nice to hear about your interest in flim. Perhaps it is somewhat genetic, or resurgent from what was once learned and forgotten from your earliest days.