There is less light, reflected off the piano, reaching the camera than at 150 m, or 10 m.
But don't forget that the image of that piano will be proportionally smaller.
As mentioned before: both image size and light intensity follow the same geometry. So though there's less light, that light has to fill in a smaller spot on film. The intensity per area unit will be the same at 300 m as it would be at 150 m, or 10 m.
So the setting to use is the same too.