J.S. Friedman - History of Color Photography
This was recommended to me by Photo Engineer a year or more ago, and with good reason. It's exhaustive, and well written. It covers every development in color photography from the beginning, with references to patents, early texts and practical experience from the author himself. Some chapters seem like rocket science, but others are quite digestible even for an amateur such as myself.
An earlier book, E.J. Wall's History of Three-Color Photography, is equally monumental judging by the thickness of it, but I've yet to delve into it.