And "prosecution" generally refers to a criminal law or similar proceeding, not a civil claim in tort for damages. So damages for "malicious prosecution" could not flow from a civil claim.
At least up here a counter-suit for damages might include a claim for costs, including court costs and increased costs. The availability of such costs will vary with each jurisdiction, according to that jurisdiction's rules.
If a claim is made that has no standing in law, an application can be made to have it dismissed early in the proceeding. In addition, even if the claim could have a legal basis, the factual situation may indicate that the claim is without any potential merit (in my jurisdiction the phrase used is "frivolous and vexatious") and another, different application can be made to have it dismissed early in the proceeding.
The first such application requires a purely legal decision, and therefore little or no evidence will be referred to. The second type of application requires a decision that involves a mixture of law and fact, and therefore at least some evidence will need to be be referred to. As such, it is a more complex application, and may result in a judge referring the issue to a full trial, especially if issues of credibility arise.