The ship hit an iceberg because its rudder was too small to turn the ship quickly enough to avoid the iceberg. The rudder design was in fact faulty.
The ship hit an iceberg because the officer of the deck ordered full-astern, thus compromising the ability of the rudder - regardless of its design - to perform its intended function. In order for a rudder to work correctly a ship must be moving forward. And in order for the rudder to be able to work correctly over the long term, the ship must be steered away from icebergs...
"Hate is an adolescent term used to stop discussion with people you disagree with. You can do better than that."
—'blanksy', December 13, 2013