I got it reassembled in the correct order (fresnel side facing mirror, matte side facing prism).
I put some frosted tape across the back film plane to simulate ground glass (works when you're in a bind/hurry). It looks like that did it. The distance scale on the barrel now seems to be accurate, and the focus seems to be the same through the viewfinder and on the film plane.

I've got some B/W I'm shooting at wide open (f/1.4 - f/2.8 max) as a test roll. We'll find out in a few days if that was the trick. Again, thanks a TON!