Peter, I know what you are talking about, but you've stated it incorrectly. If the reflectance is different for two objects under the same illuminance, they will have different luminances; and barring any spectral sensitivity problems, the resulting exposure will produce different densities. What you're talking about is producing different tones from two objects of different colors having the same luminance.
Originally Posted by PeterB
As Bill said, color filters are the answer. I've attached the Maxwell Triangle which "can be used to predict the effect of color filters on black and white film." As the color of the filter moves further from the subject's color, the resulting tone progressively darkens. Complementary colors darken. Supplementary colors lighten.