Filters very rarely bind onto Lenses if you just nip them onto your lens in the first place.
I use a multi-coated filter of some description all the time on all of my lenses.
Filters keep sticky fingers as well as dirt and rain off the front element of lenses.
If you use a clean multi-coated filter there is very little chance of it creating flare.
When you experiment with the various coloured filters available to you with B&W film - take notes of what you are doing. Its very easy to shoot rolls and rolls of film and them not have a clue what filters you used for any particular shot (or at least its what I did)
Exactly what filters you settle on will depend on what you like to photograph and where in the world you are (geographical location has a significant affect on the quality of the light)