In ten days you can and no doubt will cover just about every street, bridge and canal in Venice - you'll find all the locations you need for yourself without a problem.
I like the areas away from the main tourist centres best and I tend to stay away from the Piazza san Marco, Rialto, Accademia, the station, Piazza le Roma, and the main rat runs between them . I also think that the little canals convey much more atmosphere than the Grand Canal.
Just a couple of thoughts.
* Don't ignore Venice at night. You won't find the exposures easy but the place is at its most evocative at night, even if it is hard to photograph well
* As islands go, Burano is certainly more photogenic and less busy than Murano
*I have not found Guidecca to be very interesting photographically.
* the biggest stumbling block to good photographs IMO is bright sunlight and deep shadow. Overcast, or better yet misty, is far preferable, so if you get that don't waste it.