Total and local contrast in the negative, and contrast control in printing obviously have significant impacts. It's not just about exposure.
As an example, take a low contrast negative and print it with relatively low contrast in the enlarger. If you print it light, it will look light but low in contrast. If you increase the enlarging exposure, it will print dark, but still low in contrast.
Exposure and contrast go hand in hand when you print. Most of the time adjustments are required to both exposure and contrast to get the desired print.