As Lionel and Bill suggest, why not make a camera obscura out of a shoe box or similar materials then photograph the projected image?

That way you avert the risk of permanent damage to your vision or your equipment. Further, I imagine this would allow you to take pictures in a lot more comfortable setting rather than squinting and peeking at the bright sun.

If you have some type of synchronized mount like a telescope tripod you could mount it thus but, if you have something like that, why not just use the telescope to project your image onto a screen of some type then photograph the result.
All it would take is some gaff tape, some cardboard and a few pieces of coat hanger wire and you could build a projection screen for your telescope that would move right along with it. Just focus on the screen and snap away.

If you don't have a telescope or some sort of synchronized mount, you'll still have a minute or so to take your photo before you have to move your camera obscura again.