I'm about to attempt making my first bellows and I'm wondering what sort of adhesive to use to attach the stiffeners and liner to the outer material. I'll be using Porter's rubberized darkroom cloth for the exterior, manila folder material for the stiffeners, and a black "Super-Suede" 150 denier polyester fabric obtained from Outdoor Wilderness Fabrics for the liner.

I've read suggestions on Doug Bardell's site for using Franklin Sanding Disc cement, Nashua 357 or 3M Photo adhesive sprays as the adhesive. Other sites recommend using rubber cement or the type of contact cements used by the automotive industry to secure vinyl/rubber trim to vehicles.

So, I have a couple questions to those who may have assembled a bellows before me. First, is there any adhesive including those mentioned above that you wouldn't use in retrospect, and if so, why? For example, the adhesive ultimately failed, or it set too quickly or not rapidly enough, it was too messy to apply, or it interacted with the material and caused it to deteriorate, etc.

Second, does anyone have any ideas for other suitable adhesives? I'm trying to imagine what might have been used historically and I'm thinking canvas hide glue sizing might do the trick being inexpensive and reversible and I doubt it would interact with the materials adversely.

Spray adhesives would seem to me the easiest to apply, but I have doubts that something like Photo Adhesive Spray would be permanent based on how I've seen it fail in mounting photos.

I wonder if plain old white glue or PVA would work. Anyone?

Thanks in advance for sharing your experiences or thoughts.

BTW, the bellows will probably be 9" inside and square on both ends, non-tapering, and probably 24" - 30" fully extended.