I'm also an expat living abroad and I haven't had a darkroom for the past two years (although I recently got some equipment). I've mostly been developing my own film (not colour though) and using a darkroom whenever I head up to Tokyo (once or twice a year). Like you, I have no idea how long I'll be staying here, but photography is important to me, and to that end, I finally have everything I need to set up a darkroom in my house (I just need the time to do it!).
How's your Chinese? Maybe there are photo clubs where probably former film photographers hang out. They might know where to go to get developing done. Have you tried asking at the mom and pop shops? They might know too. Or perhaps cameras stores that sell used gear? It's in one of those mom-and-pop used gear shops that I found 2-hour turnaround developing for all colour film - negative or slides! And this in a city of about 800,000 people. I'm sure Shanghai must have something somewhere.
If not, then how important is it for you to shoot film? Why are you opposed to scanning? I think most photo-finishing places around the world no longer do optical prints -- the negs are scanned and they are printed from that. Perhaps you could develop and scan until you're more sure about what you want. And if not, it either means doing everything yourself, or sticking with digital.