Coming from digital, the basic rule you should keep in mind is: with slides you expose for the highlights, i.e. you take care not to burn the highlights, just like you would do with digital especially if you use raw and the "expose to the right" technique which is somehow comparable.
With negative film you expose for the shadows, i.e. you take care not to block the shadows. That's the opposite of what you do with digital and slide film.
Also, digital has a very abrupt clipping in the highlight; slide film has a dynamic range slightly broader than digital and a less abrupt highlight clipping. Negative film has much broader dynamic range and much slower highlight "clipping".
Slide film requires attention to exposure, and can give be unpleasant results in high-contrast situations (when the brightness range is high).
Negative film is more forgiving but it does require you to think exposure "for the shadows".
What above applies to professional and consumer film the same way.
Both slides and negative can allow you to reach professional quality. Professional film is normally not a requisite for professional quality work. Exceptions apply.
For "general purpose" I would start with 200 ISO negative film as negative film is more forgiving of exposure mistakes. I would in any case immediately try slide film also to taste it.