These do not look like air bubbles / pinholes caused by processing. Typical air bubbles or pinholes caused by air are seen by transmitted light, not by incident light as in your examples.

They look more like some sort of damage to the film itself, which has blown away the emulsion. This might take place if the processing solutions were too hot.

If you see actual physical damage to the emulsion, as in craters, rough spots, or some sort of damage that you can feel with a finger, then it is either the process or the film. Since this took place on what appears to be 120 and 35mm, I suspect the process.