Yes, you can indeed use 16mm movie film. I bought Eastman 7222, 100 ft. 16mm single perf, Double-X negative film direct from Kodak for about $35 shipped. You should be able to spool at least 60 rolls of 18 exposure each from that length.
I taped a length of twine with a large knot at 18 inchs to the plastic carton that holds the film.
IN TOTAL DARKNESS!! I spool out about 19 inchs, close the lid tight, and snip off the film leaving 1/2 inch sticking out from the carton. Then I insert the end of the film in my spooling stick, a 5/16 wooden dowel, 6in. long, with a 3/4in. long slit in one end made with an X-Acto razor saw. Spinning the dowel, I guide the film using my finger and thumb along the edge of the film to a tight roll. Emulsion side in, with the perforations next to the cartridge bridge. Then pull the roll off the dowel, keeping it tight, and insert into the feed (small) end of the cartridge, leaving about 1 in. sticking out through the light trap. Now put on the cover and you can turn on the lights and complete the loading. Tape the cover on the feed side with blue masking tape, blue masking tape can be removed later without leaving a residue. Pull out another inch of film from the feed side and tape it to the take up spool, insert the take up spool in the large end of the cartridge, tape on the cap and you are done.
If you can't find a reel for your Patterson that will adjust down to 16mm then you can buy a Yankee Clipper II tank and reel from B&H Photo for $16.99 with free shipping. This is a cheap tank and reel, and I mean cheap, but it is workable and the reel will adjust for 16mm/110 size film.
I develop Double-X with HC-110, dilution H, 1:63, as a one shot for 11 min. at 68~70 F agt. 5 sec. every 2 min. water stop, normal fix, rinse, photo-flo and hang to dry. I don't bother trying to find 16mm clear neg files, I just put them in 35mm clear neg pages and they seem to stay put fine in the binder.