As far as I know Kodak only published D-23. The rest of these are just referred to as "divided D-23" or "D-23 variants" because they are based on Metol/Sulfite in bath A. In the Anchell/Troop table Adams's formula is the only one that uses the true Kodak D-23 as the first bath.
As to how they all differ in terms of working characteristics, there would likely be relatively small differences. Stoeckler and Dalzell are nearly the same, as are Thornton and Adams, although one would expect slightly higher sharpness from the Thornton version. The Leitz version is said to be sharper, but who knows. A controlled test of all of these might be interesting, I'm sure that has never been done.
The 6g Sulfite/40g Sulfate mix in solution B in the TD formulas is suggested to reduce swelling.