Paper has a much shorter range than the full range of a negative, and that range gets even shorter the higher the grade of paper you use. On the other hand, the range of what you photograph under most common conditions, using common materials, will fit into the paper range fairly well. In other words, you would not be needing the full range of the negative to represent typical scenes.

The fun starts when you realise that we rarely photograph typical scenes or if you want to use materials more creatively.

If this interest you, may I suggest you seek out great posts by Stephen Benskin and Bill Burk on this forum, many going into the matter of materials testing and fitting paper ranges to negatives, development times, and the entire subject of the tone reproduction process. Enjoy!