Long before Lomography we had a talk at our local photo club on the various effects possible with any SLR using various old lenses, magnifying glasses, etc., with bellows where necessary to focus, and the lecturer had produced some delightful soft focus and other optical effects. I had a go myself afterwards, it's interesting and productive, and it is, of course, possible to get a good idea of the finished results as the shot is set up.
Probably the only extra in Lomography is the use of various outdated and special films, but even these further effects can be added in printing.