Quote Originally Posted by Anscojohn View Post
That Helios 44 is a Soviet copy of the Zeiss Biotar. A good sample can give outstanding results. I have several.
http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double-Gauss_lens
the Zeiss works lost their documentation when Dresden was torched so the Russians had no more design information than Canon had for their 5cm f/1.8 LTM
the post 1982 lenses will have been derived from Mandlers type IV Summicron