The Trioplan could be a nice lens on a smaller format. I have a 210 and use it for 4x5. It's a smooth bokeh-licious lens rather than a sharp lens.
For portraits, the Kodak 305 portrait was made for 5x7. It's sharp stopped down, and soft wide open. But it's focus is different that what's visible. It's a bit of a cult lens and won't be in your price range.
A Kodak Ektar/Commercial Ektar would be a generally nice general purpose tessar to own.
For wide, you won't get something really nice for that price range. I have a Nikkor 90/4.5 SW and it's very nice. Some 90/8's are available but probably need work or might not have coverage.
Petzval coverage is pretty subjective; we use them for wider coverage than they were designed for, because people like swirl. The cheapest petzvals won't have an aperture, since they were made for projection.
Another option for old inexpensive lenses is a rapid rectilinear, which is simple and small and good and will be in your price range. I bought a Bausch & Lomb one with a good working shutter for <$100.