I'm not sure it would have taken off. The 'selfie' is made to put on Facebook or whatever, it often it's to say 'look how good I look'. I think narcissism is often a quick, instinctive thing, and does not suit waiting to finish the roll, sending it off to get developed etc.
I'm sure some people must have taken pictures of themselves on film looking great, waited to process the roll and then showed the prints to friends down the pub. Maybe not great enough numbers for it have been given a name though.