Shoot color slide film only for a year. Pay attention to the lighting situations you like and note the exposure. Process the film right after shooting. You'll get the hang of it.
Really, there's not such a huge range of lighting situations, and I think most photographers gravitate toward a few lighting situations, if they are paying attention to the light.
Sometimes things are changing rapidly, like sunrise/sunset, and that's a situation where I find I can't rely on rules of thumb and do better with a meter, but sometimes I can do better with rules of thumb, because in most situations, the light isn't changing rapidly, and it's better to set one exposure and use it as long as the light doesn't change, than to meter every shot. Or if you're shooting outdoors and there are passing clouds, you might find yourself alternating between two settings, one for clouds and one for direct sun.