I'm really surprised no one has mentioned the Olympus OM series. The OM-1(n) is all mechanical except for the meter, and the lenses are excellent; some of them are amazingly good. Your budget will get you an OM-1n and one or two good lenses, depending on where you buy. An OM-2(n) adds auto exposure, but be aware that the OM-2n does not have mirror lockup.

I second the recommendations regarding the importance of a tripod and using C41-based films until you are comfortable. I can get develop and scan to cd only cheaply at my corner drugstore (which seems to take care) as well as a semi-pro lab here in town. I have used both Kodak and Ilford b&w C-41 but haven't drawn any conclusions yet as to which I prefer.

Finally, consider a rangefinder if long lenses and macro work isn't important. As has been stated, vibration is less of a problem.