Yes, 1960s and 70s lenses don't really sound like the right 'vintage' for a distinctly retro look.
All the SLR lenses I use are 1970s Japanese screw-mount lenses, generally from less well-known but good-quality brands -- Rikkenon (Ricoh), Chinon, Polar, etc. They take wonderfully sharp and contrasty images and are also usually pretty fast lenses too -- with an adapter on my EOS film camera I'd put them up against any non-expensive new lens in terms of quality.
The Industar 61 L/D that I use on my russian rangefinder does have a particular 'character' to the images, a sort of lovely 'glow' around the edges and in the highlights that I assume is the sort of thing that Leicaphiles have in mind when they rave about Leica glass. It's sort of a 'retro' look when shot wide-open but images from that lens are nevertheless very sharp and contrasty and if I shoot with the right film in it the results, again, are excellent by any modern standard.
Tessar or triplet lenses are, I assume, more what people have in mind when they talk about a retro look. The tessar type lens on my Flexaret TLR produces pretty 'retro' or old-fashioned images when shot wide-open or near wide-open and is probably the closest thing that I have to that old-school look. The attached image has a sort of 'veiled' look that comes from using the Flexaret quite close to wide open and with the camera slightly facing into the sun.
However, even that lens or the triplet lens on my Lubitel are capable of producing sharp, high-quality images when stopped down a bit and used with a lens hood. I actually went back recently and looked at some of my Lubitel negs from when I first got into shooting film about 4 years ago and they are really pretty impressively sharp given the limitations of the camera -- if I didn't tell you it was a 60 year old plastic-bodied thing with an uncoated lens, you'd never know.