Yes, in conventional processing there were methods to increase color saturation either through masking or by means of amplification.
This achieved higher apparent color contrast.
But, the idea is to reproduce the original scene so most photographic products try to reproduce just that and no more. Reversal films do just what you describe. They can make a garbage dump look like paradise, but negative films are designed to reproduce a scene accurately with as presise a color rendition as possible.
Printing color slides onto Ilfochrome is one method of increasing the color contrast.
If you want the entire repertoire of methods, it is an entire course in color printing and is beyond the scope of this thread.