First, may I congratulate you on your choice; I am still using my 500CM and would not dream of getting rid of it, it is a real no frills work horse and the basis of an excellent system.
The 'C' lenses were introduced in 1957 and are fitted with the renowned Carl Zeiss Compur shutter which is fully sync. on all speeds to 1/500 sec.

The 'CF' lenses were introduced in 1980 for use with the 2000FC camera body which has a focal plane shutter with speeds to 1/2000 sec. These lenses do not have shutters built into them. They have a limited sync. speed of 1/90 sec. only.
However the 2000FC can be used with 'C' lenses giving the camera the useful addition of a choice of fast shutter, the focal plane, or the compur with sync. speed up to 1/500.
I also have this camera, again I would not part with it, and it is in use regularly.

The 'T' marking on a Hasselblad lens is a designation, showing that the particular lens is multicoated. All lenses since 1957 are designated 'T' lenses. The coating system is rather involved, I do not consider it necessary to go any deeper unless specifically asked to do so.
For any further information - just shout!